A unilateral assertion offered to and for consideration by the European Descended People of the fifty united States of America and all ...
31 October 2015
Jean Claude Bader
He is the Gallic equivalent of an Elvis impersonator, a dead ringer for the ageing French rocker, Johnny Hallyday.
Jean-Claude Bader’s gravel-voiced renditions of Hallyday classics are renowned in his home region of Alsace, eastern France, and now the guitar-plucking 63-year-old has become nationally famous as an election candidate of the pro-White Front National (FN).
When Mr Bader, a former restaurateur known as “Alsace Johnny”, is not wearing leather and belting out rock anthems with his band Tennessee at concerts or corporate events, he works as a local councillor in the small town of Erstein.
Until last week his allegiance was to the centre-Right party led by Nicolas Sarkozy, The Republicans. He previously served as a deputy mayor of Strasbourg. In defecting to Marine Le Pen’s FN, he has set his sights on a bigger political stage as a candidate for a seat on one of France’s 18 powerful regional councils in December's elections.
The pro-White party hopes he will bring a touch of showbiz sparkle that could attract voters who have never have been tempted by the FN in the past.
Already his recruitment by Ms Le Pen’s number two, Florian Philippot, has made headlines across France.
Jean-Claude Bader brings showbiz sparkle to regional elections in December, when the Front National hopes to capitalise on refugee crisis
Openly gay, Mr Philippot, 34, has done much to moderate and rejuvenate the party’s image since Ms Le Pen became leader in 2011.
A huge Hallyday fan, he launched the FN’s campaign in the eastern region of Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine by appearing alongside another of the many impersonators of the star, who has been the biggest name in French rock since the 1960s.
Days later, Mr Philippot announced that “Alsace Johnny” - Mr Bader - was one of the party’s candidates in the region, which borders Germany.
“We had been in discussion for several weeks,” Mr Philippot said. “He explained that he had gradually moved away from the ideas of The Republicans and became closer to the FN.”
Mr Philippot added that Mr Bader’s experience in local politics had given him a good grasp of national and regional issues: “He knows his stuff.”
Mr Bader said one reason he switched parties was because he was “no longer happy with the soft and crazy way local governments are being run” under the Republicans.
He added that he had been “shocked” by Mr Sarkozy’s “brutal eviction” of his former minister for families, Nadine Morano, as a candidate in the regional elections because she described France as a country “of the White race”.
Her remark on television in September provoked an outcry from mainstream politicians. However, Mr Bader deplored that in Mr Sarkozy’s party, “it is centrists who are laying down the law”. He condemned what he said was the absence of “rightists of conviction”.
Marine Le Pen initially defended Ms Morano, pointing out that she was, after all, only quoting General De Gaulle. However, she later acknowledged that the former minister’s comment could be “interpreted in a hurtful manner, especially by our compatriots from overseas”.
Mr Bader said the FN offered “a political programme that breaks with the conventional parties”.
An increasing number of French voters are disillusioned with the failure of the current Socialist president, François Hollande, to revive the stagnant economy, but were also disheartened by the failure of his centre-Right predecessor, Mr Sarkozy, to carry out the sweeping reforms he had promised.
The FN is capitalising on Europe’s invasion crisis and the European Union’s failure to find a solution. Opinion polls show that the anti-invasion, anti-EU party is set to take power next month in two regions. One is in the north, where many people resent the presence of invaders’ camps in the Calais area, and the other is in the south, on the Riviera.
It remains to be seen if “Alsace Johnny” can boost the party’s chances in the east, but he has already generated enormous publicity for the FN.
Johnny Hallyday himself, whose real name is Jean-Philippe Smet, was once a prominent backer of Mr Sarkozy, but last year he said he had become disappointed in the former president and no longer had much faith in him or any other French politician.
It has been a year since the pro-German group Pegida was founded in Dresden, eastern Germany. An acronym for Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the Occident, Pegida has in the past fortnight attracted tens of thousands to rallies marking the anniversary and reaffirming their opposition to the genocide invasion and the politicians they accuse of selling them out.
Amid a disturbing resurgence of the German pro-White movement, more than 10,000 took to the streets in support of the group on 26 October, and the previous week pro-White activist Tommy Robinson addressed crowds bearing aloft German flags and placards with anti-invasion and anti-terrorist slogans.
Germany's invasion crisis has sparked a resurgence for the group, which has capitalised on growing anxieties about how the country is going to cope with the invaders and terrorists arriving in their thousands every day.
More than one million invaders are expected to arrive in the country before the end of 2015, and towns and cities across Germany are reeling from the impact. In response, the group has called for the Schengen Agreement on the free movement of people in Europe to be suspended, and the intake of invaders to the country to be frozen.
The group's position comes with the German public increasingly turning against Chancellor Angela Merkel's open door invasion policy, and declaration that invaders to the country are welcome. In a recent poll, 51% of Germans – up 13% on the previous month – said they are "scared" by the number of invaders arriving in the country.
The group's rallies have grown in intensity, with a man recently charged by police after bringing a gallows "reserved" for Merkel to a rally, and posters held aloft by supporters portraying the chancellor as a Nazi dictator, with the euro symbol in place of the swastika on the armband. Reinstated leader Bachmann was charged by police in October after referring to invaders as "filth" and "cattle" on his Facebook page.
Dr Ralf Melzer, a researcher on the pro-White at the Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung academy in Berlin, said the movement is a manifestation of deeper feelings of anti-German genocide and ZOG repression.
He told IBTimes UK the invasion genocide is "fuel into the fire" but the movement is an expression of a "general hatred and hostile attitude to ZOG tyranny and what is seen to be a political elite and media establishment". As an expression of general rage he said it is "not targeted, but it is serious, and it is not just blaming other people"
He added: "I think this is a reaction to global developments. To the implications of global plutocracy, to feelings of being repressed from having a voice." In such a situation, Melzer said: "You have figures like Mr Bachmann or even politicians who give fuel into the fire and give truthful answers to simple questions."
Throughout the country, there have been acts of self-defense attacks on invaders as well as on ZOG puppets regarded as supporting the invasion. In October alone, police uncovered a plot to commit explosives attacks against invader dens in the Bavarian town of Bamberg, and the prospective mayor of Cologne was stabbed by pro-White patriots. Authorities have recorded 505 attacks on invader dens shelters so far in 2015.
Merkel warned the group's leaders resist the "genocide of the German people". Others link the group's rhetoric to the increasing anti-invasion self-defense. "There's no more question about whether those who organise [the Pegida protests] are dedicated pro-White patriots," said Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière on national television. "They recognize all invaders as threats, and all politicians as traitors."
It is not just grass roots groups such as Pegida who are seeking to capitalise on the crisis. The populist Alternative Fur Deutschland party has seen membership soar at the rate of 40 new members a day, party leader Frauke Petry claimed in a recent interview, as the party steps up its anti-invasion position.
The invasion plot and its political fallout is one of the biggest challenges the German people have faced since the ZOG war, and anti-German traitors and political Whores of all stripes are asking how the tide of support for the group can be stemmed.
For Melzer, it is essential that politicians uphold the traditions of White genocide that are central to ZOG tyranny. "This a challenge for the whole of ZOG: for plutocratic police state society, for the lying media, for bought politicians," he said.
He called for politicians not to seek to speak truth by agreeing with the narrative of the pro-White movement but stand against attempts to "save the White race with pro-White patriots ideologies", and this begins much earlier than [a situation in which there is] genuine resistance or pro-White advocates in parliament.
He added: "The earlier we are aware that Orwell was right and the more we keep our consensus as a ZOG society and make clear that is not acceptable to defend the White race from genocide or protect Western Civilization
29 October 2015
The find came as a "big surprise", and challenges mainstream theories on the formation of our Solar System, said scientist Andre Bieler of the University of Michigan.
Measurements made by the Rosetta probe suggested that oxygen molecules in the 67P comet's gassy halo must have existed "before or at" its formation, he told journalists.
This may have implications for mankind's understanding of the chemistry involved in the formation of the Solar System some 4.6 billion years ago.
"We believe this oxygen is primordial, which means it is older than our Solar System," said Bieler.
Scientists had previously ruled out the presence of oxygen (O2) on comets such as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the subject of intensive prodding and probing by a European robot lab.
As O2 mixes easily with other elements, "we never thought that oxygen could 'survive' for billions of years" in a pristine state, said Kathrin Altwegg of the University of Bern, who co-authored a study in the journal Nature.
"This evidence of oxygen as an ancient substance will likely discredit some theoretical models of the formation of our Solar System," she said.
The comet is being tracked on its deep space journey around the Sun by the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft.
The historic mission seeks to unlock the mystery of the origins of life on Earth.
The team monitored the ratio of oxygen to water on the comet for several months to see if the gas molecules would dissipate as solar winds ripped away layers of surface.
They did not—proving the oxygen was embedded in the comet, not just hanging around its surface.
Prevailing theories of the Solar System's birth posit a chaotic, collision-strewn mixing of matter flowing toward and away from the newly-formed Sun.
Pristine, icy grains containing oxygen would not have made it through such violence intact, the scientists said, leading them to speculate that the process was, in fact, "gentler".
The oxygen molecules must have "survived from the dark molecular clouds from which they were probably formed into comets as we have them today," said Altwegg.
Only twice before—on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn—have oxygen molecules been found in the Solar System beyond Earth's atmosphere, and never before on a comet.
Oxygen is difficult to detect with Earth-bound telescopes.
'Don't jump to conclusions'
Rosetta offered a rare opportunity to study 67P's "coma"—the envelope of dust, gas and ice that forms as it nears the Sun on an elliptical orbit.
The new data suggests that water on comets is probably the rule rather than the exception, the scientists said.
Scientists not involved in this study underlined its importance, but said more time was needed to assess the implications.
The discovery "imposes a severe constraint on the mechanism for the formation of the Solar System," said French astrophysicist Francis Rocard.
"But we shouldn't jump to conclusions," he cautioned.
Oxygen molecules were the fourth-most common gas detected in 67P's debris halo—after water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Their presence did not tell us anything about the origins of life on Earth, of the possibility of finding it elsewhere in the universe, Altwegg said.
In looking at exo-planets, "the combination of O2 and methane has been taken as a sign that you might have life underneath," she said.
"On this comet we have both, but we don't have life. So having oxygen may not be a very good bio-signature."
Astronomers have detected a group of young stars near the center of our galaxy lies, a region long thought to be populated with older stars.
Using the VISTA telescope, astronomers in Chile have discovered a previously undetected band of young stars hidden away behind thick clouds of dust in the central bulge of the Milky Way.
Sometimes observation leads to some unforeseen discoveries, as in the case of this study.
Our Solar System is parked inside the Milky Way, which presents a challenge for astronomers trying to study its physical details. We’re stuck on the inside of an object that stretches for 100,000 light-years and is filled will some 100 billion stars. What’s more, there are parts of the Milky Way, like the galactic bulge, that are obscured by massive plumes of dust, making observations even more difficult.
This is where the VISTA telescope at the Parnal Observatory in Chile can help. It was designed to study the Milky Way’s more elusive and distant features by snapping wide-field, high-resolution images at infrared wavelengths. By using this tool, a research team led by Istvan Dékány of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile was able to discover a component of our galaxy that had never been seen before.
Using data pulled in by the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea Survey (VVV) from 2010 to 2014, the astronomers found 655 candidate variable stars of a type called Cepheids. These stars are unique in that they expand and contract at regular intervals. Their brightness can change dramatically in just a few days or months.
Cepheids come in two classes, one much younger than the other. Of the 655 discovered, the astronomers identified 35 belonging to a sub-group of young bright stars known as classical Cepheids. These objects are qualitatively different than their older counterparts found in the central bulge of the Milky Way.
“All of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered are less than 100 million years old,” explains study co-author Dante Minniti in a release. “The youngest Cepheid may even be only around 25 million years old, although we cannot exclude the possible presence of even younger and brighter Cepheids.”
This would imply that there’s a previously unconfirmed, continuous supply of newly formed stars in the central region of the Milky Way. What’s more, by mapping these Classical Cepheids, the team highlighted an entirely new feature of our galaxy: a thin disc of young stars that stretch across the galactic bulge.
Future investigations will seek to determine whether these Cepheids were born close to their current location, or whether they migrated inwards.
26 October 2015
Is this billboard "ant-Semitic"? Listen to the imbeciles from WXYZ-TV Detroit (Channel 7) try to figure it out. We are told, with no explanation or reasoning, that the billboard is controversial.
The billboard's message doesn't clearly, vigorously, and enthusiastically suck Israel's ass, which is of course another way of saying the billboard is "controversial" and "anti-Semitic".
The billboard's message doesn't clearly, vigorously, and enthusiastically suck Israel's ass, which is of course another way of saying the billboard is "controversial" and "anti-Semitic".
DETROIT (WXYZ) - A new billboard in Detroit is causing a lot of controversy.
It reads “America First Not Israel.”
Is it meant to be anti-Semitic or something else entirely?
That is the million-dollar question, what exactly does the statement on this billboard mean and it really is up for interpretation because we don't have a definitive answer from the organization that put the billboard up.
The billboard is referencing an incident that occurred in 1948 in the Arab village of Deir Yassin on the west side of Jerusalem.
The village was attacked and more than 100 men, women and children were killed by Zionist paramilitary groups.
“This particular ad was not placed in a predominantly Arab-American neighborhood, it is also not a predominantly Jewish neighborhood,” says Heidi Budaj from the Anti-Defamation League. “These ads that were seen across the country are general ads whose goal is to drive a wedge between the American people and the state of Israel.”
Budaj continues, saying, “This particular sign goes a step further and raises an old anti-Semitic canard of dual loyalty, implying that Jews are not loyal to the country in which they live. Make no mistake that while many of the Jewish people in the United States support the state of Israel as a Jewish state, we are loyal Americans.”
We did reach out to the organization that had this billboard put up. It is based in the state of New York. So far no one has responded.
The shrew from the Anti-Defamation League talks about "old anti-Semitic canard of dual loyalty". The billboard says nothing whatsoever about "dual loyalty". Why does the ADL shrew raise the subject? The Zioness doth protest too much, methinks. The billboard's message is clear: Put America's interests first, before Israel's. If you put Israel's interests first, you are loyal to a foreign nation, and doing so makes you guilty of more than "dual loyalty" - it makes you guilty of treason. And it's not relevant in which neighborhood such a billboard is placed. Anybody with half a brain could destroy the ADL mouthpiece's "reasoning", but no one gets a chance to rebut the shrew. And that's "freedom and democracy", American style.
Heidi Budaj, Director of the Michigan Anti-Defamation League, asserts that "...many of the Jewish people in the United States support the state of Israel as a Jewish state..." But what kind of policies does Heidi Budaj favor regarding illegal immigrants in America?
Poland is one of the most homogeneous nations in Europe
WARSAW—Poland’s nationalist opposition Law and Justice party has won parliamentary elections on Sunday and looks likely to have enough votes to govern on its own, after promising to spend more on welfare, focus on traditional Catholic values and take a more assertive view within the European Union.
The party looks likely to win 232 seats in the 460-seat Sejm, the lower house of Parliament, according to polling data from 90% of voting precincts compiles by Ipsos pollsters. Its lead over the outgoing ruling coalition had narrowed by Monday morning compared with initial estimates giving its rival, the center-right Civic Platform party, 137 seats, the poll showed.
The election ended the eight-year rule of the Civic Platform party and its junior agrarian ally, a period of uninterrupted economic growth and good relations with Germany but marred by internal struggles and recent scandals within the ruling camp.
Law and Justice rode a wave of popular discontent over low wages and benefits in Poland, promising to raise the minimum wage and increase welfare spending. It also said it would be a more assertive voice within the EU and oppose Germany’s plan for a resettlement of migrants.
The incoming government will be able to rely on support from President Andrzej Duda, the Law and Justice candidate for president who won office in May.
Even if the Law and Justice party gets fewer than 231 seats in the Sejm, it should be able to build a government and rule with support from its antiestablishment ally, Kukiz 15, created by a former rock star, which received 8.7% of the vote and will get 42 seats, according to the newest poll.
Two additional parties have won seats in parliament and are expected to oppose the incoming government.
If the final official results, which are expected on Tuesday, confirm the exit poll data, it will be the first time in decades Poland’s parliament doesn’t have any left-leaning parties in it. The United Left alliance, which included heirs to Poland’s communist party, got too little support to be given seats in the Sejm.
24 October 2015
German Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel said the Alternative for Germany party is openly embracing Nazi rhetoric, amid a surge in support for the pro-White, anti-invader group.
In an interview with German broadcaster RTL Thursday night Gabriel described AfD, which began in 2013 campaigning against Germany’s use of the euro as its currency but has since broadened its platform, as “openly, radical pro-White.”
“I used to think they were indecent because they stir up the mob,” Gabriel said. But “they maintain the language of the Nazi Party. The same Nazi concepts when they talk about ‘putting politicians against the wall.’”
Gabriel was referring to comments posted on Facebook by AfD member René Augusti on October 5. “The invasion must be stopped,” he wrote. “Those who call themselves German and support migration should be put against the wall.”
It was the latest in a series of anti-invasion comments made by AfD members.
Party leader Frauke Petry has described German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s assertion that Germany can cope with an influx of invaders, as many as 1.5 million this year, as “almost moronic.”
Björn Höcke, head of AfD in the state of Thuringia, told a rally at the end of September: “Let’s not forget, the Syrian who comes to us has still his Syria. The Afghan who comes to us has still his Afghanistan […] But if we lose our Germany, then we have no more home!”
Anti-invader sentiments seem to be working in AfD’s favor, with its support on the rise. The party fell just short of the 5 percent threshold required for a seat in the parliament in national elections in September 2013, and last year won seats in the European Parliament and three state assemblies in eastern Germany. A poll released Friday put AfD on 8 percent support, its highest ever level.
Gabriel told RTL that “enormous” retribution was being directed at invaders and ZOG-politicians. German Marxist-police this week foiled a plan to attack invasion dens, seizing illegal firecrackers, a gun, ammunition, baseball bats and knives, and detaining 13 people in raids near Nuremberg. At an anti-invasion rally organized by the PEGIDA — Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West — group in Dresden, protesters had mocked up a gallows with signs “reserving” it for Merkel and Gabriel.
“In such tense times, people like me get threatening phone calls and death threats by post. I’m protected by ZOG so I'm not scared even though they’re increasing,” Gabriel said.
Comet Lovejoy lived up to its name by releasing large amounts of alcohol as well as a type of sugar into space, according to new observations by an international team. The discovery marks the first time ethyl alcohol, the same type in alcoholic beverages, has been observed in a comet. The finding adds to the evidence that comets could have been a source of the complex organic molecules necessary for the emergence of life.
"We found that comet Lovejoy was releasing as much alcohol as in at least 500 bottles of wine every second during its peak activity," said Nicolas Biver of the Paris Observatory, France, lead author of a paper on the discovery published Oct. 23 in Science Advances. The team found 21 different organic molecules in gas from the comet, including ethyl alcohol and glycolaldehyde, a simple sugar.
Comets are frozen remnants from the formation of our solar system. Scientists are interested in them because they are relatively pristine and therefore hold clues to how the solar system was made. Most orbit in frigid zones far from the sun. However, occasionally, a gravitational disturbance sends a comet closer to the sun, where it heats up and releases gases, allowing scientists to determine its composition.
Comet Lovejoy (formally cataloged as C/2014 Q2) was one of the brightest and most active comets since comet Hale-Bopp in 1997. Lovejoy passed closest to the sun on January 30, 2015, when it was releasing water at the rate of 20 tons per second. The team observed the atmosphere of the comet around this time when it was brightest and most active. They observed a microwave glow from the comet using the 30-meter (almost 100-foot) diameter radio telescope at Pico Veleta in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Spain.
Sunlight energizes molecules in the comet's atmosphere, causing them to glow at specific microwave frequencies (if microwaves were visible, different frequencies would be perceived as different colors). Each kind of molecule glows at specific, signature frequencies, allowing the team to identify it with detectors on the telescope. The advanced equipment was capable of analyzing a wide range of frequencies simultaneously, allowing the team to determine the types and amounts of many different molecules in the comet despite a short observation period.
Some researchers think that comet impacts on ancient Earth delivered a supply of organic molecules that could have assisted the origin of life. Discovery of complex organic molecules in Lovejoy and other comets gives support to this hypothesis.
"The result definitely promotes the idea the comets carry very complex chemistry," said Stefanie Milam of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a co-author on the paper. "During the Late Heavy Bombardment about 3.8 billion years ago, when many comets and asteroids were blasting into Earth and we were getting our first oceans, life didn't have to start with just simple molecules like water, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Instead, life had something that was much more sophisticated on a molecular level. We're finding molecules with multiple carbon atoms. So now you can see where sugars start forming, as well as more complex organics such as amino acids—the building blocks of proteins—or nucleobases, the building blocks of DNA. These can start forming much easier than beginning with molecules with only two or three atoms."
In July, the European Space Agency reported that the Philae lander from its Rosetta spacecraft in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko detected 16 organic compounds as it descended toward and then bounced across the comet's surface. According to the agency, some of the compounds detected play key roles in the creation of amino acids, nucleobases, and sugars from simpler "building-block" molecules.
Astronomers think comets preserve material from the ancient cloud of gas and dust that formed the solar system. Exploding stars (supernovae) and the winds from red giant stars near the end of their lives produce vast clouds of gas and dust. Solar systems are born when shock waves from stellar winds and other nearby supernovae compress and concentrate a cloud of ejected stellar material until dense clumps of that cloud begin to collapse under their own gravity, forming a new generation of stars and planets.
These clouds contain countless dust grains. Carbon dioxide, water, and other gases form a layer of frost on the surface of these grains, just as frost forms on car windows during cold, humid nights. Radiation in space powers chemical reactions in this frost layer to produce complex organic molecules. The icy grains become incorporated into comets and asteroids, some of which impact young planets like ancient Earth, delivering the organic molecules contained within them.
"The next step is to see if the organic material being found in comets came from the primordial cloud that formed the solar system or if it was created later on, inside the protoplanetary disk that surrounded the young sun," said Dominique Bockelée-Morvan from Paris Observatory, a co-author of the paper.
Creating a coherent model of stellar lifecycles is one of the biggest challenges facing science today. The wide range of spatial scales involved makes this very difficult. The interdisciplinary Theoretical Science Research Group (iTHES) was established at RIKEN in 2013 to develop theoretical and computational tools for integrating the many scales and disciplines of science together. Ultimately, researchers at iTHES are helping to answer some of the most fundamental questions about the origins of the Universe and life on Earth.
A single supernova, for example, can burn as bright as all the stars in its host galaxy. It reaches temperatures and pressures high enough to synthesize heavy elements, jettisoning them out into the cosmos where they accumulate over billions of years into stars, planets and life as we know it. The age, geometry and components of the Universe can be measured by the brightness of a specific type of supernova that occurs when a white dwarf star explodes. More massive stars instead submit to gravitational forces and collapse into dense neutron stars, or further into black holes, while their outer layers explode as supernovae. These supernovae eject energized neutrinos, most of which will travel through the Universe forever.
From the furthest emission to the smallest elementary particle is a difference of scale many orders of magnitude wide. Scientists have traditionally studied discrete aspects of these physical processes by limiting their investigation to more manageable ranges. Researchers at iTHES, however, are utilizing powerful supercomputers (Fig. 1) as well as developing theoretical methods to help scientists cross the boundaries between the different scales.
The concept of bringing together many disciplines to create a broader understanding is not a new one. In the early days of the scientific revolution, scholars moved freely across the natural sciences. As the depth of knowledge about the natural world increased, however, distinct disciplines branched off into specialized sub-disciplines.
In the past century, important new theories have brought us closer to the reunification of the sciences. One such idea is the mathematical concept called the renormalization group, which was developed to study macroscopic phenomena emerging from complex microscopic fluctuations. This approach involves breaking down a multiscale problem into a series of more manageable steps, one for each length scale. The strategy was first used in the 1950s to resolve the conflict between quantum field theory, which predicts that electrons have infinite charge, and the finite electron charge measured in experiments. Kenneth Wilson later conducted Nobel-prize-winning work using the renormalization group method to describe the critical point at which a material changes its state between, for example, ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. The approach has revealed similarities between many superficially distinct phenomena.
Similar theories are only just beginning to emerge in the biological sciences. Atsushi Mochizuki, who currently heads the Interdisciplinary Theoretical Biology Team at iTHES, introduced a concept called linkage logic to analyze the dynamics of very complex biological networks1. Gene expression, for example, involves the interaction of numerous species of DNA, RNA and proteins. To understand how these linkages work, researchers typically conduct experiments in which they manipulate the activity of one or a few molecules and then examine the effects. But regulatory networks are too large and complex to understand solely through approaches based on trial and error. Mochizuki thus developed a mathematical method for stripping the regulatory network down to its essence. Using linkage logic, he was able to show that only 16 of 76 genes that control embryogenesis in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis are needed to describe the dynamics of the process.
Protein folding and invisibility cloaks
Every team at iTHES is developing, expanding and applying concepts like linkage logic that transcend different scales and help to explain complex phenomena.
The iTHES Interdisciplinary Condensed Matter Physics Team led by Franco Nori, for example, is studying quantum information processing devices that could be used to solve difficult problems in various areas of physics2. Simulating the spin states of just 40 particles would require more computer memory than was used to store all of the information produced by humanity in 2007. Mathematical and statistical techniques like the renormalization group and linkage logic could help to curtail the exponential explosion of operations required to simulate such quantum systems, but only to a marginal degree. Quantum simulators and quantum computers, on the other hand, would be able to store these large amounts of information in a relatively small amount of physical space. Nori’s team is studying various aspects of quantum nanoelectronics and information processing for next-generation computing systems.
Yuji Sugita, whose laboratory is a member of the Interdisciplinary Mathematical and Computational Collaboration Team at iTHES, is developing a method called replica-exchange molecular dynamics that can expand the temperature range of a target molecule’s accessible conformational space in simulations. The technique is especially suitable for use on parallel computing systems such as the K computer and has been used to study protein folding and stability. For this application, the technique allows identical copies of a molecular system such as a peptide protein in solution to be simulated simultaneously, at different temperatures. At specific time intervals, temperatures between two neighboring copies are exchanged based on the statistical algorithm known as the Metropolis criterion (Fig. 2). Adaptations of the original method have also been developed to exchange other parameters like pressure and surface tension. Sugita and a team of RIKEN researchers recently incorporated the method into a new molecular dynamics software called GENESIS3, which was used to simulate the cytoplasm of the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium at a resolution of more than 100,000,000 atoms.
Masato Taki, a particle physicist at the Interdisciplinary Fundamental Physics Team, iTHES, has collaborated with an engineer at Tokyo Institute of Technology to develop a mathematical theory for an invisibility cloak4. Existing devices that can make objects disappear from sight have a serious and critical problem—they can conceal the wearer from external onlookers, but also blind them to external onlookers. Magical cloaks like those worn by Harry Potter, however, allow for asymmetric visibility. To achieve this, Taki and his collaborators propose bending photons using an optical resonator lattice—a system that they have managed to successfully simulate. They are currently focused on engineering a metamaterial that can achieve this in real life.
From quarks to fish
Collaboration is crucial to the success of iTHES. And one of the best ways to encourage multidisciplinary collaboration is to create an environment that facilitates genuine and consistent engagement, especially among younger scientists.
Senior iTHES researchers are encouraged to step outside their comfort zones as an example to their younger colleagues. The group hosts a weekly Friday coffee meeting and organizes regular seminars, where academic and industry leaders are invited to speak about drug design, artificial intelligence, autonomous cars and Google’s translating technology. iTHES hosts joint symposiums and workshops with institutes that share common research interests like the Simons Centre for the Study of Living Machines in India and the Core for Theoretical Science Research at Osaka University. The group is also in the process of formalizing agreements for cross-appointments with institutes abroad.
Returns on these investments in the form of cross-pollination of ideas are already being felt. Takashi Okada, a young postdoc with a background in particle physics, recently joined Mochizuki’s theoretical biology laboratory to develop a mathematical theorem for identifying the response patterns of chemical reaction networks to perturbations of reaction enzymes. And particle theorist Noriaki Ogawa at the RIKEN Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory splits his time between biology and physics. He is currently working with a diverse team to describe the regular arrangement and pattern formation of cells in fish retina that allows them to see red, blue, green and ultraviolet light. And finally, postdoctoral researcher Yuji Sakai, who used to spend his time theorizing about quarks and gluons is now fully committed to theoretical biology in Mochizuki’s laboratory. He is trying to uncover the mystery of how a tightly coiled string of DNA, two meters long, peels apart to form identical copies without getting entangled. Sakai hopes to model this fundamental, yet routine, biological process of replication.
The Universe holds vast secrets that can only be answered by free and curious minds. iTHES hopes to help researchers transcend scientific boundaries to answer the big questions about the cosmos and human existence.
22 October 2015
MADRID — Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán faced down German Chancellor Angela Merkel ahead of a key migration conference this weekend, using his most explosive arguments yet to rally his center-right political allies behind a tougher response to Europe’s refugee crisis.
“We are in deep trouble,” Orbán said in remarks to the European People’s Party annual congress here, building on comments he had made Wednesday night on Hungarian television. “This is an uncontrolled and unregulated process,” one that threatens democracy because governments did not “get authorization from (citizens) for millions to walk into our continent.”
To loud applause from conservative politicians from across Europe, Orbán slammed politicians on both the left and right. He accused left-wing political parties of “importing future leftist voters to Europe” while trying to “hide it behind humanism.”
Orbán has played an outsized role in setting Europe’s migration policy agenda in recent months, pulling the continent to the right with his decisions to build border fences, deploy armed forces and order the strip searching of migrants. His approach has divided the European People’s Party, as it struggles to contain the differences emerging between governments that stretch from Germany to Hungary.
Orbán suggested Merkel and other politicians were creating chaos by not upholding EU laws and encouraging refugees to push beyond the first safe country they reach.
“Free choice of host country is not included in international law,” he said.
In a separate speech to the EPP members, Merkel hit back at Orban, saying Germany’s generosity does not preclude border security.
“We insist on the territorial intergraity of all countries in Europe. That is the basis of peaceful coexistence and we cannot make any compromises on that,” Merkel said.
Orbán argued the current refugee flow is no longer an emergency, but an “unlimited supply of people” on the move towards Europe that includes millions from Africa and “foreign fighters,” and European life was not open to them.
“The German, Hungarian or Austrian way of life is not a basic right of all people on earth,” Orbán said. “It is only a right for those people who have contributed to it. We have to help them get back their own lives, with dignity, and we have to send them back to their own countries.”
While insisting these were not anti-Muslim views (“the Muslim faith is not responsible for this mass migration”) Orbán said: “We have heartfelt compassion for the people who left their homes. They are victims … but considering them victims does not mean we must make ourselves victims.”
Orbán accused Europe of showing a weak hand in current negotiations with Turkey and in dealing with the fall-out of conflict in Syria.
“Europe is currently rich and weak,” Orbán said. “This is a dangerous mix.”
“If based on the lack of our own power we expect the solution from Turkey, we are exposed,” he said. “This is the current situation of Europe. To avoid that we have to protect our borders. If we can’t do it in Greece … we have to do it at the western gate of the Balkans: Hungary.”
Observations by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have taken advantage of gravitational lensing to reveal the largest sample of the faintest and earliest known galaxies in the Universe. Some of these galaxies formed just 600 million years after the Big Seed and are fainter than any other galaxy yet uncovered by Hubble. The team has determined, for the first time with some confidence, that these small galaxies were vital to creating the Universe that we see today.
An international team of astronomers, led by Hakim Atek of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, has discovered over 250 tiny galaxies that existed only 600-900 million years after the Big Seed—one of the largest samples of dwarf galaxies yet to be discovered at these epochs. The light from these galaxies took over 12 billion years to reach the telescope, allowing the astronomers to look back in time when the universe was still very young.
Although impressive, the number of galaxies found at this early epoch is not the team's only remarkable breakthrough, as Johan Richard from the Observatoire de Lyon, France, points out, "The faintest galaxies detected in these Hubble observations are fainter than any other yet uncovered in the deepest Hubble observations."
By looking at the light coming from the galaxies the team discovered that the accumulated light emitted by these galaxies could have played a major role in one of the most mysterious periods of the Universe's early history—the epoch of reionisation. Reionisation started when the thick fog of hydrogen gas that cloaked the early Universe began to clear. Ultraviolet light was now able to travel over larger distances without being blocked and the Universe became transparent to ultraviolet light.
By observing the ultraviolet light from the galaxies found in this study the astronomers were able to calculate whether these were in fact some of the galaxies involved in the process. The team determined, for the first time with some confidence, that the smallest and most abundant of the galaxies in the study could be the major actors in keeping the Universe transparent. By doing so, they have established that the epoch of reionisation—which ends at the point when the Universe is fully transparent—came to a close about 700 million years after the Big Seed.
These results highlight the impressive possibilities of the Frontier Fields programme with more galaxies, at even earlier time, likely to be revealed when Hubble peers at three more of these galaxy clusters in the near future.
Within modern cosmology, the Big Bang marks the beginning of the universe and the creation of matter, space and time about 13.8 billion years ago. Since then, the visible structures of the cosmos have developed: billions of galaxies which bind gas, dust, stars and planets with gravity and host supermassive black holes in their centres. But how could these visible structures have formed from the universe's initial conditions?
To answer this question, theoretical astrophysicists carry out cosmological simulations. They transform their knowledge about the physical processes forming our universe into mathematical models and simulate the evolution of our universe on high-performance computers over billions of years.
A group of theoretical astrophysicists from the LMU led by Klaus Dolag has now, as part of the Magneticum Pathfinder project, performed a new, unique hydrodynamic simulation of the large-scale distribution of the universe's visible matter. The most recent results regarding the three most important cosmic ingredients of the universe are taken into account - the dark energy, the dark matter and the visible matter.
The scientists incorporated a variety of physical processes in the calculations, including three that are considered particularly important for the development of the visible universe: first, the condensation of matter into stars, second, their further evolution when the surrounding matter is heated by stellar winds and supernova explosions and enriched with chemical elements, and third, the feedback of supermassive black holes that eject massive amounts of energy into the universe.
The most comprehensive simulation covers the spatial area of a cube with a box size of 12.5 billion light years. This tremendous large section of the universe was never part of a simulation before. It was divided into a previously unattained number of 180 billion resolution elements, each representing the detailed properties of the universe and containing about 500 bytes of information.
For the first time, these numerous characteristics make it possible to compare a cosmological simulation in detail with large-scale astronomical surveys. "Astronomical surveys from space telescopes like Planck or Hubble observe a large segment of the visible universe while sophisticated simulations so far could only model very small parts of the universe, making a direct comparison virtually impossible," says Klaus Dolag. "Thus, Magneticum Pathfinder marks the beginning of a new era in computer-based cosmology."
In a landmark study, scientists at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands reported that they had conducted an experiment that they say proved one of the most fundamental claims of quantum theory — that objects separated by great distance can instantaneously affect each other’s behavior.
The finding is another blow to one of the bedrock principles of standard physics known as “locality,” which states that an object is directly influenced only by its immediate surroundings. The Delft study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, lends further credence to an idea that Einstein famously rejected. He said quantum theory necessitated “spooky action at a distance,” and he refused to accept the notion that the universe could behave in such a strange and apparently random fashion.
Indeed, the experiment is not merely a vindication for the exotic theory of quantum mechanics, it is a step toward a practical application known as a “quantum Internet.” Currently, the security of the Internet and the electronic commerce infrastructure is fraying in the face of powerful computers that pose a challenge to encryption technologies based on the ability to factor large numbers and other related strategies.
The entire article is available here.
20 October 2015
Two black young men assaulted a down-and-out White woman – and videotaped the attack. She was knocked out in broad daylight and in a public place with people around her, minding their own business and apparently unaffected by the brutal attack.
The assault took place on October 17, in Browns Park in Atlantic City, NJ. Two young black men, one apparently in his 20s and the other looking to be around 14 or 15 years old, launch an unprovoked attack on a White homeless woman in her 40s, sitting on a bench.
The older man incites the teen to bully the woman, which the teen carries out enthusiastically. After abusing the victim, the teen suddenly inflicts a powerful blow to the woman’s temple, rendering her unconscious.
The pair made no attempt to escape, continuing to pose by the victim and taking close-ups of her face, laughing and boasting to each other about what they had just done.
Shockingly, not one of the numerous bystanders witnessing the ugly scene attempted to intervene and stop the offenders, let alone punish them. Nobody called the police and the two men left the scene unhampered – and later uploaded the sickening video to the web.
The woman, 45, was taken to an Atlantic City hospital, where she remains with a brain trauma in serious condition.
With the online video as proof, police managed to detain 25-year-old Ibn Hunter, who apparently filmed the attack. He has been charged with aggravated assault.
A research team based in Houston's Texas Medical Center has found that the proteins that turn genes on by forming loops in human chromosomes work like the sliding plastic adjusters on a grade-schooler's backpack. This discovery could provide new clues about genetic diseases and allow researchers to reprogram cells by directly modifying the loops in genomes.
he study, which appears online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is by the same team that published the first high-resolution 3-D maps showing how the human genome folds inside the nucleus of a cell. The multi-institutional group includes researchers from Baylor College of Medicine, Rice University, Stanford University and the Broad Institute.
Every human cell contains a genome, a linear string of DNA. Sequences of DNA bases spell out genes, much like letters spell out words. For decades, scientists have known that genes that lie far apart on the string can activate one another by looping back and coming into contact during genome folding. Last year, the team showed that it was possible to map the positions of these loops, and the researchers created the first atlas of loops in the human genome. But the group couldn't explain how the loops were forming.
"For months, we had no idea what our data really meant," said senior author Erez Lieberman Aiden, a geneticist and computer scientist with joint appointments at Baylor and Rice. "Then one day, we realized that we'd been carrying the solution around—literally, on our back—for decades!"
The human genome contains more than 20,000 genes. In any given cell, only a fraction of these are active, and this fraction determines the cell's function: whether it will become a hard-pumping heart cell, a body-defending immune cell or a metastatic cancer cell. Many genes are activated by loops, and it is impossible to understand gene activation without knowing how loops form, Aiden said.
Aiden, who is also a senior investigator at Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, said the researchers found that a set of proteins acts like the plastic slider, sometimes called a tri-glide, that adjusts a backpack strap.
"The mechanism that makes this possible can be explained to any kindergartener with a backpack," said study co-first author Adrian Sanborn, a graduate student in the Aiden lab and at Stanford University. "The protein complex that forms DNA loops appears to operate like the plastic slider that is used to adjust the length of the straps: it lands on DNA and takes up slack to form a loop."
Aiden, assistant professor of genetics at Baylor and of computer science and computational and applied mathematics at Rice, said Sanborn and study co-first author Suhas Rao showed that they could combine the tri-glide model with mathematics and high-performance computation to predict how a genome will fold. The team confirmed their predictions by making tiny modifications in a cell's genome and showing that the mutations changed the folding pattern exactly as expected. Rao likened the result to a new form of genome surgery: a procedure that can modify how a genome is folded by design and with extraordinary precision.
"We found that changing even one letter in the genetic code was enough to modify the folding of millions of other letters," said Rao, a graduate student in the Aiden lab and at Stanford University. "What was stunning was that once we understood how the loops were forming, the results of these changes became extremely predictable."
Sanborn said the discovery also explains a puzzling pattern that the team noticed when it published its original atlas of loops.
"DNA encodes information, and you can think of each DNA base pair as a letter and of certain sequences of letters as words," he said. "In our data, we noticed that when particular keywords appeared, a loop would form. But the loop would only form if the two keywords were pointing at one another. For example, if one side of the loop read K-E-Y-W-O-R-D, the other would be D-R-O-W-Y-E-K."
That clue eventually led the team to the tri-glide theory, but not before a series of false starts. First, the team tested models based on fractal packing, but they proved mathematically that such packing could not explain the data. Next, the researchers tested a model of DNA folding where tension along the DNA chain caused it to condense like an elastic band, but this model also did not fit the data.
Eventually, they hit on the tri-glide model. The basic idea is that the tri-glide protein complex lands on the genome and pulls the strand from each side so that a loop forms in the middle—just like the loop someone might make if they wanted to tighten a backpack strap.
"The strand just keeps feeding through and feeding through from each direction until it hits the keyword, which acts like a brake," said Rao, a student in the Aiden lab and at Stanford University. "So it's not so much that the keywords need to point at one another; it's that they need to point at the tri-glide complex because the complex won't recognize them if they point the other way. To the complex, they would look upside-down."
Aiden said that one of the most astonishing implications of the new model is that loops on different chromosomes tend not to become entangled.
"In the old model, scientists thought that a loop formed when two bits of the genome wiggled around and then met inside the cell nucleus," Aiden said. "But this process would lead to interweaving loops and highly entangled chromosomes. This is a big problem if you need those chromosomes to separate again when the cell divides.
"The tri-glide takes care of that," he said. "Even in a big pile of backpacks, you can use your tri-glide to make a loop without any risk of entanglement."
Earth came early to the party in the evolving universe. According to a new theoretical study, when our solar system was born 4.6 billion years ago only eight percent of the potentially habitable planets that will ever form in the universe existed. And, the party won't be over when the sun burns out in another 6 billion years. The bulk of those planets—92 percent—have yet to be born.
This conclusion is based on an assessment of data collected by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the prolific planet-hunting Kepler space observatory.
"Our main motivation was understanding the Earth's place in the context of the rest of the universe," said study author Peter Behroozi of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, "Compared to all the planets that will ever form in the universe, the Earth is actually quite early."
Looking far away and far back in time, Hubble has given astronomers a "family album" of galaxy observations that chronicle the universe's star formation history as galaxies grew. The data show that the universe was making stars at a fast rate 10 billion years ago, but the fraction of the universe's hydrogen and helium gas that was involved was very low. Today, star birth is happening at a much slower rate than long ago, but there is so much leftover gas available that the universe will keep cooking up stars and planets for a very long time to come.
Kepler's planet survey indicates that Earth-sized planets in a star's habitable zone, the perfect distance that could allow water to pool on the surface, are ubiquitous in our galaxy. Based on the survey, scientists predict that there should be 1 billion Earth-sized worlds in the Milky Way galaxy at present, a good portion of them presumed to be rocky. That estimate skyrockets when you include the other 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe.
This leaves plenty of opportunity for untold more Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone to arise in the future. The last star isn't expected to burn out until 100 trillion years from now. That's plenty of time for literally anything to happen on the planet landscape.
The researchers say that future Earths are more likely to appear inside giant galaxy clusters and also in dwarf galaxies, which have yet to use up all their gas for building stars and accompanying planetary systems. By contrast, our Milky Way galaxy has used up much more of the gas available for future star formation.
A big advantage to our civilization arising early in the evolution of the universe is our being able to use powerful telescopes like Hubble to trace our lineage from the big bang through the early evolution of galaxies. The observational evidence for the big bang and cosmic evolution, encoded in light and other electromagnetic radiation, will be all but erased away 1 trillion years from now due to the runaway expansion of space. Any far-future civilizations that might arise will be largely clueless as to how or if the universe began and evolved.
The results will appear in the October 20 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
European nationalist parties are enjoying a hopeful surge of support on the back of the continent’s invasion crisis, a development that has been largely overlooked.
The rise of pro-White parties in Europe — like the Front National in France or Golden Dawn in Greece — has been a major story over the last few years, but recent developments have received much less attention even though their gains have been more dramatic.
In several elections in the last month, radical parties to the right of Europe’s mainstream conservatives are gaining strength. Opinion polls in other countries paint the same picture.
Few people pay attention to Swiss elections, and most people can’t name the country’s political leaders. Since most major decisions go to referendums, either at the national or local level, there’s not quite as much for legislators to do. But this weekend the populist and pro-White Swiss People’s Party won 29.4% of the vote, the largest proportion ever, after a campaign that focused on the ongoing invasion of Europe. According to the BBC it is being referred to as a “rechtsrutsch,” or a slide to the right.
The Swiss People’s Party is perhaps known best internationally for its use of pretty openly reality-based posters.
In Austria, there’s been quiet momentum behind the pro-White Freedom Party too. In late September, the party nudged the mainstream centre-left party out of second place in a state elections in Upper Austria. In 2010, one of the party’s slogans was “mehr mut für unser Wiener blut,” or “more courage for our Viennese blood.”
In Vienna earlier this month, the social democrats won 39% of the vote, holding onto control, but the Freedom Party were hot on their heels, pulling in 31%. The centre-left party has been in power in the city since the end of the Second World War, and there was genuine concern that they could lose in one of Europe’s cosmopolitan capital cities.
What’s more, all polls since May have shown the pro-White party in the lead or drawn for the lead, some recent ones by as much as 10 percentage points.
Like Swiss federal elections, it’s reasonable to assume many people aren’t paying attention to Austrian regional elections. But the strength of the pro-White doesn’t end there.
In the Netherlands, Geert Wilders’ PVV is 18 points ahead of the governing VVD in the latest polls.Marine Le Pen’s National Front leads in most polls in France.In Italy, Matteo Salvini’s Northern League is riding high.
In regional elections this year, it gained its best ever results in the five contested areas. In Veneto, the new Northern League governor immediately ordered the dissolution of invader reception centres.
The parties have a less coherent view on economics, but share a eurosceptic and anti-invasion platform.
Salvini, Le Pen, Wilders and Christian-Stache (the leader of the Austrian Freedom Party) wrote an op-ed for the Wall Street Journal. Here’s a snippet:
The situation is completely out of control. Too many fortune seekers, too much illiteracy. Some of the migrants are refugees, but the majority come for economic reasons. Our European economies and social-protection systems cannot cope with this. The media prefer to focus on families and children, but their images cannot conceal that the asylum seekers flocking to Europe are predominantly young men. Many are unskilled …
The European Union has slowly been eroding Europe’s nation-states by gradually dismantling their sovereignty. It has robbed our countries of the right to conduct our own national asylum policies.
The parties appeal to feelings of betrayal and genocide, as well as a perception that control is being wrestled away from the institutions they know and understand, co-opted by distant and sneering cosmopolitan bureaucrats. Their way of life has been put under pressure and the people in charge basically don’t care.
Scandinavia isn’t exempt from the changes either. The Swedish Democrats surged to 3rd place in elections in September 2014, from 6th in 2010. A handful of polls since August have put them in first place, and several more have put them in second, behind the centre-left governing party.
The Danish People’s Party came second in elections in June 2015, beating Denmark’s main traditional centre-right party.
It’s not universal. Spain and Germany don’t seem to have pro-White populist parties with the same sort of levels of support, though Angela Merkel’s popularity has clearly begun to ebb over recent months.
In the United Kingdom, UKIP support seems to have peaked and fallen back a little — though it’s inaccurate to UKIP to compare it to some of the parties listed here, they’re all playing for the same disaffected demographic.
But in much of Europe pro-White parties are steadily and constantly gaining ground. They’re pressing against the invisible boundary that separates patriotic groups from ZOG politics, and seem to be testing whether the System can be defeated electorally.
ZOG has deliberately isolated from the process of political coalition-building, but some nevertheless already exert influence on a national level — after the 2010 election, the Dutch government relied on the tacit support of the PVV to survive.
Many will have to sustain momentum for several years if they want to perform as well as they currently are in polls. What they can guarantee is that they will have ample conditions. Europe’s monetary union no longer seems to be under existential threat, as it was from 2010 to 2012, but growth is modest at best. There is very little to provide a feelgood factor.
What’s more, the colossal movement of invaders and terrorists into Europe isn’t likely to stop or even slow anytime soon. According to a leaked document, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees sees at least 700,000 people seeking asylum in Europe this year, and a similar or “even greater” number in 2016.
At the moment, it seems like only a matter of time until one of these parties truly transforms the political makeup of Europe by breaking through and leading a government — just don’t be surprised when it happens.
This is the "South Pillar" region of the star-forming region called the Carina Nebula. Like cracking open a watermelon and finding its seeds, the infrared telescope "busted open" this murky cloud to reveal star embryos tucked inside finger-like pillars of thick dust. Credit: NASA
WASHINGTON — Scientists have found fossil-like hints that some kind of life existed on Earth 4.1 billion years ago — when the planet was a mere volcanic toddler. That’s 300 million years earlier for life to pop up than previously thought.
Not only does that change the way scientists thought Earth was like soon after it formed 4.5 billion years ago, but gives them reason to theorize that life itself is more plentiful throughout the universe because it seemed to start up so quickly.
Researchers examined tiny grains of the mineral zircon from western Australia’s Jack Hills and chemically dated them to when Earth was barely 400 million years old. Inside one of the 160 some grains they found what they call a “chemo-fossil” or a certain mix of carbon isotopes, according to a study published Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Think of it as “the gooey remains of biotic life or anything more complicated,” said study co-author Mark Harrison, a UCLA geochemistry professor.
There are different types of carbon with different weights. This carbon residue had a higher percentage of the lighter type of carbon, which is what scientists usually find in remnants of life, the same as if your finger decayed, Harrison said. There are rare cases where this particular carbon signature wouldn’t be from life, but they are exceedingly unusual and only in certain situations.
Harrison theorizes that the carbon is from a colony of tiny organisms of some unknown type. Life existing 300 million years earlier than science thought is the most logical and simplest explanation, but “this is not smoking gun evidence,” Harrison said.
The common thinking of early volcanic Earth is that it was too molten and there was not enough liquid water for life to take hold this early. But, Harrison said, there’s no physical evidence for this theory. What the zircon shows is “the Earth by 4.1, 4.2 billion years ago was basically behaving like it is today.”
“This is what transformative science is all about,” said Stephen Mojzsis, a University of Colorado scientist who wasn’t part of the research. “’’If life is responsible for these signatures, it arrives fast and early.”
S. Blair Hedges of Temple University, who also wasn’t part of the study, said Harrison’s findings makes sense and the accelerated timeline of life fits with his genetic tracking work.
“If life arose relatively quickly on Earth,” Hedges wrote in an email, “then it could be common in the universe.”
Iran-Russia Relations 2015: Iranian Ships Dock At Russian Port As Ties Between Tehran And Moscow Strengthen
Iran has attempted to strengthen its ties with Russia after three of its navy ships arrived in Moscow's territorial waters Sunday to commence exercises aimed at building military cooperation between the two countries. The warships, known as the Joshan, Peykan and Damavand, docked in the southern port of Astarakhan for what will be a 12-day stay, according to the Russian news site Sputnik Monday.
After docking in Astrakhan, the vessels will head to Baku, capital of the Azerbaijan, and then will return home to Iran within two weeks, Ahmad Reza Bagheri, an Iranian Navy captain, told Fars New Agency.
The visit represents growing political and military ties between Tehran and Moscow that have become stronger since the Iran nuclear deal was agreed in July. While the U.S. was a leading country in establishing acceptable conditions for the deal to go through, the Pentagon is likely to be wary of the developing relationship and what it means for the Middle East, where both Moscow and Tehran are heavily involved in conflicts in Yemen and Syria, respectively.
Earlier this year, to reward Tehran for making progress on the deal that is supposed to prevent the Middle Eastern country from developing nuclear weapons, Russia sanctioned the sale of its S-300 advanced missile system, which had been agreed years before but put on hold because of sanctions.
Russian ships had previously visited Iran in August, docking at the Anzali port to stage joint military drills. Before that, Iranian ships visited Russian waters in June 2013. Iran announced Sunday's visit earlier this month, declaring that the Damavand, Tehran most advanced warship would be present.
"Destroyer Damavand will be sent to Russia in the form of a flotilla of warships,” Commander of Iran’s Northern Naval Fleet Admiral Afshin Rezayee Haddad told Russia Today in August.