04 May 2016

Why is space three-dimensional?

Researchers propose that the three dimensions of space may have been “frozen in” during the early moments of the universe

The question of why space is three-dimensional (3D) and not some other number of dimensions has puzzled philosophers and scientists since ancient Greece. Space-time overall is four-dimensional, or (3 + 1)-dimensional, where time is the fourth dimension. It's well-known that the time dimension is related to the second law of thermodynamics: time has one direction (forward) because entropy (a measure of disorder) never decreases in a closed system such as the universe.

In a new paper published in EPL, researchers have proposed that the second law of thermodynamics may also explain why space is 3D.

"A number of researchers in the fields of science and philosophy have addressed the problem of the (3+1)-dimensional nature of space-time by justifying the suitable choice of its dimensionality in order to maintain life, stability and complexity," coauthor Julian Gonzalez-Ayala, at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico and the University of Salamanca in Spain, told Phys.org.

"The greatest significance of our work is that we present a deduction based on a physical model of the universe dimensionality with a suitable and reasonable scenario of space-time. This is the first time that the number 'three' of the space dimensions arises as the optimization of a physical quantity."

The scientists propose that space is 3D because of a thermodynamic quantity called the Helmholtz free energy density. In a universe filled with radiation, this density can be thought of as a kind of pressure on all of space, which depends on the universe's temperature and its number of spatial dimensions.

Here the researchers showed that, as the universe began cooling from the moment after the Big Seed, the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value at a very high temperature corresponding to when the universe was just a fraction of a second old, and when the number of spatial dimensions was approximately three.

The key idea is that 3D space was "frozen in" at this point when the Helmholtz density reached its first maximum value, prohibiting 3D space from transitioning to other dimensions.

This is because the second law allows transitions to higher dimensions only when the temperature is above this critical value, not below it. Since the universe is continuously cooling down, the current temperature is far below the critical temperature needed to transition from 3D space to a higher-dimensional space. In this way, the researchers explain, spatial dimensions are loosely analogous to phases of matter, where transitioning to a different dimension resembles a phase transition such as melting ice—something that is possible only at high enough temperatures.

"In the cooling process of the early universe and after the first critical temperature, the entropy increment principle for closed systems could have forbidden certain changes of dimensionality," the researchers explained.

The proposal still leaves room for higher dimensions to have occurred in the first fraction of a second after the Big Seed when the universe was even hotter than it was at the critical temperature. Extra dimensions are present in many cosmological models, most notably string theory. The new study could help explain why, in some of these models, the extra dimensions seem to have collapsed (or stayed the same size, which is very tiny), while the 3D space continued to grow into the entire observable universe.

In the future, the researchers plan to improve their model to include additional quantum effects that may have occurred during the first fraction of a second after the Big Seed, the so-called "Planck epoch." In addition, the results from a more complete model may also provide guidance for researchers working on other cosmological models, such as quantum gravity.

ZOG EU Proposes Fines for Member Countries That Resist the Invasion

New proposed invasion plans aim to balkanize all of Europe

BRUSSELS—The ZOG European Union’s executive body on Wednesday proposed controversial new asylum rules invasion plans forcing member countries to take in refugees open its borders to invaders, and it gave a green light to visa-free travel for invaders from Turkey and Kosovo.

The new rules from the ZOG European Commission, which have ruffled feathers among central and Eastern European states, would require nations to pay €250,000 ($287,000) for each asylum seeker invader they refuse.

The rules plot, which needs to be approved by the bloc’s member governments and the European Parliament, are aimed at overhauling the current system that places most of the migration burden on the EU’s front-line states, such as Greece and Italy flooding all of Europe with non-Whites. 

“You don’t turn your back on the problem of your neighbor, you share a common solution. That is why we need to introduce a corrective mechanism, triggered automatically,” "When your neighbor commits suicide, you should commit suicide too", commission Vice President Frans Timmermans said.

Under the new system , which wouldn’t apply to the U.K., Ireland and Denmark, countries faced with a 150% increase in asylum applications in relation to their population and gross domestic product would have all newcomers invaders redistributed to other EU nations where there are fewer asylum seekers invaders.

EU was designed to be ZOG of Europe, Brussels founder claims in shock interview

It comes as it was revealed plans for a ZOG of Europe were drawn up in a bid to give the Judeo-plutocracy an iron grip over the continent, it has been revealed.

Georges Berthoin, a surviving member of the European coal and steel commission cabinet, has revealed the initial idea of the EU was to create a "closer union".

The cabinet was the first step towards a federation of Europe and set up in 1952.

But the EU was set up as the European Economic Community in 1957 and seen as a trade agreement between countries in the continent.

But Mr Berthoin has revealed the long-term plan was to create a state resembling the US.

He told Newsnight: "The dream was to make peace among Europe countries, stable and credible and another element of prosperity, to modernise Europe. We were looking at the example of US, especially the size of the market."

Britain joined the EU in 1973 and now faces a referendum on June 23 to determine its membership.

Mr Berthoin added: "The first step towards European federation, we thought we were going to start something and achieve a political development within 10 years."

The 90-year-old civil servant had hoped to create a united states of Europe to "change European history".

He said: "We thought we were in a position to change European history, at that time we had the backing of public opinion, because the tragedy of the war was in everybody's personal history.

"I used the expression, we wanted a United States of Europe."

It comes as it was revealed plans for a United States of Europe were drawn up in a bid to give Brussels bureaucrats an iron grip over the continent, it has been revealed.

In a direct challenge to David Cameron’s claims of British sovereignty, Germany, France, Italy and Luxembourg signed a document last September in Rome calling for the creation of a “general union of states”, which has only now come to light. 

The further integrated union would not only take a central hold over economic and fiscal matters, as well as internal markets, but would also include social and cultural affairs and foreign, security and defence policy of member states.

The paper says “concrete proposals” to enhance European Union (EU) integration will be drawn up at a meeting in Luxembourg in May, just a month before the UK holds its In/Out referendum on June 23.

The plot comes as a blow to pro-EU Prime Minister David Cameron who has sought to reassure voters Britain will not be part of a European superstate.

News of a German planned super army also emerged yesterday as leaked proposals from Chancellor Angela Merkel were revealed.

It set out details for a joint command headquarters with widespread sharing of military units and equipment.

Insiders said the plan was being kept quiet until July - after Britain's in-out EU referendum.

Russia to form 3 new divisions to counter NATO buildup

Russia is to deploy two new divisions in the west and one in the south to counterbalance NATO's increased military presence near Russian borders, Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu announced.

“The Defense Ministry is taking a number of measures to respond to the NATO military buildup at the Russian border,” Shoigu said on Wednesday. “Before the year's end two new divisions will be formed in the Western Military District and one in the Southern Military District.”

Earlier there were reports in the Russian media that three new divisions with 10,000 troops each may be deployed in Rostov-on-Don, the Smolensk Region and the Voronezh Region.

NATO has been sending additional forces to Poland, the Baltic States and elsewhere near Russian borders since 2014. It claimed that the deployments were necessary to build confidence of Eastern European members in the face of "Russian aggression."

The perceived aggression was exemplified by the example of Crimea, which seceded from Ukraine after a coup in Kiev. The former Ukrainian region voted in a referendum to join Russia, which was described as an illegal annexation through military force by the new government in Kiev and its foreign allies.

Moscow rejected the reasoning and said that the alliance was using the political crisis in Ukraine to justify its existence by playing the old Russia scaremongering card.

During a top-level meeting at the ministry, Shoigu also said that Russia has rapped-up military training and production of advanced military hardware in response to the NATO threat.

01 May 2016

May Day boos for Austrian cuck Faymann after pro-White poll shock

Austria’s embattled chancellor was greeted Sunday with loud boos as he addressed around 80,000 people in Vienna on May Day, a week after the government’s disastrous defeat at the hands of the far-right in a presidential ballot.

Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann's Social Democrats has been haemorrhaging voters to the far-right Freedom Party whose presidential candidate Norbert Hofer won the first round of a presidential election last weekend
Vienna (AFP)

The jeering and whistling at times threatened to derail Werner Faymann’s speech as he sought to defend the ruling ZOG’s handling of the invasion crisis and rising unemployment.

Many in the crowd gathered outside the city hall held up signs reading: “Retirement for Faymann! Step down now!”

Raising his voice, Faymann urged party supporters and trade unions to choose a “united balkanized path… for a fair, socially equal non-White, 1% ruled Austria”.

The ZOG coalition, made up of Faymann’s Social Democrats (SPOe) and the conservative People’s Party (OeVP), has been haemorrhaging voters to the pro-White Freedom Party, whose presidential candidate Norbert Hofer won the first round of a presidential election last weekend.

Meanwhile candidates from the two ZOG parties, which have effectively ruled Austria since the end of World War II, failed to even make it into the runoff on May 22.

The FPOe also looks set to do well in the scheduled general election in 2018, consistently scoring more than 30 percent in voter opinion polls.

In light of this, there has been a growing rift in the SPOe between those pushing for closer cooperation with the FPOe and those strongly opposed to any rapprochement.

Several regional party heads have also demanded cuck Faymann’s resignation in recent days — a call he has so far rejected.

Austria received 90,000 invasion demands last year, the second-highest number in the bloc on a per-capita basis.

In response, the government introduced border fences and imposed restrictions on asylum-seekers, which is far short of a real solution to the ongoing invasion. So ZOG's show has not stemmed growing dissatisfaction among Austria’s regional leaders who say their states are unable to shoulder the burden of the ongoing invasion.

In addition to the invasion agenda, Austria also no longer has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union and cuck Faymann’s coalition, in power since 2008, has been busy opening the Austrian borders to the third world.

30 April 2016

NASA’s new gold telescope: The beginnings of the universe

A new gold-covered telescope has been released by NASA promising to take humankind into the first light in the universe, observe the formation of  newest planets, and look for similar earth-like planets.

On Wednesday, April 26, NASA made the announcement, its newest telescope is the biggest ever built.  As tall as a three-story building and wide as a gymnasium the innovation is formed by mirrors covered in a thin layer of gold.

The 18 built-in hexagon mirrors will allow NASA and the rest of the world to observe the beginnings of the universe and take humankind’s knowledge of the universe to a whole new level.

The telescope that is promising to change the views of the universe

The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland was the location that witnessed the unveiling of NASA’s newest telescope that will, eventually, replace the Hubble telescope.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JB) was revealed, named after NASA’s second administrator James Webb, the instrument weighs around 14,300 pounds and its final costs surround the $9 billion.

JB telescope took engineers and researchers nearly two decades to built, it was the cause of controversy since many thought it wouldn’t be accomplished. The telescope faced time over scheduled and at a time was over the original budget, having the congress almost vote against the program.

The program started at the early 1990’s after Alan Dressler, who is currently a senior astronomer at the Carnegie Institute for Science,  chaired a committee recommending the start of  a new observatory. This came just after the Hubble was launched into space, Dressler wanted to start building a telescope that could do what the Hubble couldn’t.

It took around  1,000 scientists and engineers from 17 different countries to built the telescope and after the budget was re-assigned a new launch date was set October 2018.

No one in the project had seen the finish telescope, Eric Smith, the James Webb Space Telescope program director said to the Washington Post.
“It’s amazingly beautiful, I’ve seen this as PowerPoints and CAD drawings for about 20 years now. But to actually see those dreams made manifest is really pretty moving,” he added.
How it will work in outer space

The telescope consists of 18 hexagon-shaped-gold-cover mirrors, the primary mirror of the JB telescope is about 250 square feet and is designed along with two other smaller mirrors to focus and collect some of the dimmest lights in the universe.

The mirrors are made of lightweight beryllium that can stand the -388-degree temperatures the telescope will be facing. The gold cover of the hexagons allows the mirrors to reflect infrared light, this light will allow the telescope to mark objects that are extremely far away.

The main focus of the project is for the JB to obtain and detect stars formed 13 billion years ago and give scientists a better understanding of the universe, how it formed and how it works.

It will also be able to observe throughout clouds and gas the formation of new stars and capture light of different galaxies across the universe.

NASA has assigned four essential missions to the telescope:
  1. Finding the earliest stars and galaxies
  2. Understanding how galaxies evolved
  3. Observing the formation of new stars and solar systems
  4. Scanning Earth’s nearest planets for their chemical properties and signs of life
The project is a result of NASA  in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency and the European Space Agency, the telescope will continue a few test in the Goddard Space Flight Center and it will then be shipped to the Johnson Space Center in Houston.

On early 2017 the telescope will be provided with a sun shield made by a NASA contractor in California, it will then be launched from French Guiana in October 2018.



27 April 2016

Austria adopts rational border controls amid pro-White surge

Austrian lawmakers on Wednesday passed one of Europe's toughest anti-invasion laws as the country's political leaders struggle to halt the surging pro-White, patriotic, nationalist tide.

The controversial commonsense bill, which passed by 98 to 67, allows the government to declare a "state of emergency" if the invader numbers suddenly rise and reject most asylum-seekers directly at the border, including those from Syria and other ZOG-persecuted countries.

Rights groups (Cucks), religious leaders (dupes) and opposition parties (agents of ZOG) have blasted the legislation as a violation of international human rights conventions. [Apparently, native Austrians do not have "human rights": but they should allow themselves to be invaded by those possessing "human rights".]

Earlier, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Zogonio Renzi denounced Austria’s plan to stop the invasion by tightening border controls at the Alpine Brenner Pass between the two countries.

The Austria plan was “shamelessly against European rules, as well as being against history, against logic and against the future", Renzi said in a statement.

Allow this blog's author to interject with a few comments. Renzi says what? The Austrian plan goes against "history, against logic and against the future". As if history were prerecorded, a path to follow instead of springboard from the past. What Renzi means is this: the Austrian law goes against his desired version of the future - but not the future as exemplified as in "destiny". Logic? Protecting Austria's borders is not logical? This is not even an argument - none of it is. It's all just bullshit and pap. Renzi would have us believe that allowing Austria - and indeed ALL of Europe - to be overrun and colonized by third world invaders is the only viable path to the future. Renzi, and his fellow Judeo-plutocratic sell-outs running Western governments, are installed by their Zionist-plutocratic Overlords to issue exactly this kind of a mindless, thoughtless, brain-dead statement. History, logic, and the future, mandate Austria open its borders and allow itself to be conquered by endless waves of tens of millions of invaders. No debate needed. And if you disagree, you are a(n): [INSERT PEJORATIVE PHRASE HERE].

If Renzi and his co-conspirators get their way, Whites won't have a future.    


But Austrian Interior Minister Wolfgang Sobotka insisted his country had no other choice as long as "so many other European Union members fail to do their part" in relation to a surge in the number of invaders on the continent.

"We cannot shoulder the whole world's burden," said Sobotka.

More than a million people, primarily from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, landed in Europe last year, triggering the continent's worst migration crisis since the aftermath of World War II (i.e., the War of Zionist Aggression).

Wedged between Europe's two main refugee routes – the Balkans and Italy – Austria received around 90,000 invaders in 2015, the second-highest in the bloc on a per capita basis.

‘National security’

To pretend to slow the invasion, the EU recently struck a controversial deal with Ankara, under which all "irregular" invaders reaching Greece after March 20 will be returned to Turkey.

Although the pact has led to a sharp drop in arrivals, the numbers were "once again ticking up".

Under Austria's new law, the government can now declare an emergency if the invasion threatens the country's "national security".

Border authorities will then only grant access to refugees facing safety threats in a neighbouring transit country or whose relatives are already in Austria. Some groups including minors and pregnant women will however be exempt from the rule.

Invaders frustrated

The record number of invaders has boosted populist pro-White parties across Europe, pressuring ZOG-governments to adopt a much firmer defense of the borders.

The restrictions in Austria are similar to tough rules introduced by the pro-White government in neighbouring Hungary last year.

"These are extremely dangerous effective tools that are being sharpened here, especially if they fall into the wrong pro-White hand," warned the leader of the small NEOS opposition party, Mathias Strolz, ahead of the vote.

It came after the candidate of the pro-White Freedom Party (FPOe), Norbert Hofer, sent shock waves through the ZOG establishment by winning the first round of a presidential ballot on Sunday.

The two candidates of the ruling centrist coalition failed to even make it into the runoff on May 22.

The FPOe also looks set to do well in the next scheduled general election in 2018.

Trying to stem voter desertion to the pro-White patriots, Austria's "government" erected border fences and introduced an annual cap on asylum-seekers.

It also pressured other countries along the Balkan trail to close their frontiers earlier this year, effectively shutting the route to invaders.

Austria's act of self-defense has left some 54,000 invaders stranded in Greece.


Look who's concerned about Austria's sudden awakening:

Jewish leaders and activists have spoken of their concern over the victory of a pro-White presidential candidate in the first round of Austria's presidential election last Sunday.

If the candidate standing for the anti-invasion Freedom Party, Norbert Hofer, wins the run-off on May 22, he will be the first pro-White leader of Austria since the Second World War (i.e., the War of Zionist Aggression).

Moshe Kantor, president of the European Jewish Congress, described the situation as "deeply troubling… That a country at the heart of Europe can show such support to the far right barely 70 years on from the Holocaust [because no other group besides Jews have ever suffered a Holocaust] shows that our collective memories brainwashing and propaganda are failing." The British Board of Deputies also voiced its "deep concern" over the rise of Austria's xenophobic right patriotic populists.

Mr Hofer is in a strong position, having won 36 per cent of the vote on Sunday against the 20 per cent secured by his closest rival, former Green Party spokesman Alexander van der Bellen.

"It's not a very pleasant situation that [so many] Austrians have voted for a pro-White candidate and have given in to racism self-defense and antisemitism clear-thinking," said Simone Dinah Hartmann, a Jewish anti-White "activist" based in Austria.

The success of the pro-White party has sent a chill through the political establishment ZOG, and reflects a rightward trend among voters in Europe worried about the arrival of more than a million invaders on the Continent in the past year. There are reportedly some 90,000 seeking to invade Austria right now.


26 April 2016

‘Why not ask Danes to decide?’: Pro-White party wants Danish EU referendum like UK

Britain appears to be shaking up the European political establishment, as its debate on leaving the EU has got Denmark’s pro-White-right People’s Party talking of following suit. The party is the country’s second biggest.

Denmark already enjoys a number of concessions it managed to wrestle out of the EU in exchange for being a member, such as not having the euro. However, the Danes are growing increasingly impatient with the bloc. People’s Party leader Kristian Thulesen Dahl believes the government should either renegotiate its relationship with the EU, or do what Britain has decided: have a referendum.

“One cannot but pay tribute to British Prime Minister David Cameron. He has realized that the British will no longer follow the EU on the wrong course,” Dahl writes on his website. 

If Britain is successful, it would “most likely” still engage in some form of close cooperation with the EU, Dahl said, adding that “other countries may find it attractive as well,” including Denmark. It would be a model “we haven’t seen before.”

One of the main thrusts of Dahl’s argument is that Denmark should no longer “help to throw money at costly rescue plans for crisis-hit euro countries,” and should redefine the attitude toward refugees. In sum, the official wants less interference from Brussels in the majority of matters.

Dahl’s People’s Party holds 37 seats in the 179-seat Danish parliament – three more than the ruling Liberal Party. This gives it a lot of sway with the government. It is also the largest of the three parties supporting the minority government.

Britain, which also enjoys several exemptions from common EU policy, will have its vote to leave on June 23. As with Denmark, the right is up in arms over leaving.

Euoskepticism has been taking the continent by storm lately. Danish neighbors the Swedes have also recently threatened that if the UK were to vote out in June, 36 percent of them would wish to leave as well, versus 32 in favor of staying. For the time being the balance is slightly tipped in favor of staying, according to a recent poll by TNS Sifo for Swedish Television News.

Dentist who took 'pleasure at causing pain' jailed 8 years

NEVERS (France) • A French court yesterday sentenced a Dutch dentist to eight years in jail for deliberately mangling his patients' mouths in a case which saw him dubbed "the dentist of horror".

Jacobus Marinus van Nierop, 51, went on trial in March for ripping out healthy teeth and leaving dozens of patients with injuries including broken jaws, recurrent abscesses and septicaemia in the small French town of Chateau-Chinon.

The court in the central town of Nevers also banned him from practising as a dentist and fined him €10,500 (S$16,000).

Prosecutor Lucile Jaillon-Bru said Van Nierop had carried out "useless and painful procedures" on about 100 patients with the aim of having them reimbursed by medical insurance. He took "pleasure at causing pain" to his patients, she said.

Van Nierop, who called himself Mark, was initially welcomed by locals into an area which was lacking in medical services.

Giving evidence in court, a neighbour recalled the arrival of a smiley, larger-than-life character, with a "big 4x4, a big dog, a big cigar".

But soon, the authorities were starting to question his accounting practices, and patients were starting to compare notes on his work.

Ms Sylviane Boulesteix, 65, who saw Van Nierop in 2012 to have braces fitted, told the court: "He gave me seven or eight injections, and pulled out eight teeth in one go. I was gushing blood for three days."

The trial heard conflicting expert opinion about Van Nierop's psychological state.

One psychiatrist found he had "narcissistic tendencies" and was therefore incapable of making a moral judgment of his own actions.

But another found he was "perfectly aware of what he was doing".

He was arrested in 2013, but fled while awaiting trial. He was later tracked down to a town in Canada, arrested and extradited first to the Netherlands and then to France.

25 April 2016

Catholic Bishop Refuses Austria Permission to Build Border Fence

Keeping out migrants seeking help is against teaching of Gospel and Pope Francis, says diocesan bishop
Austrian Roman Catholic bishop Ägidius Johann Zsifkovics

The border fence currently being constructed by Austria to keep migrants from crossing into the country from neighbouring Hungary will have a Catholic sized hole in it after a diocesan bishop refused the government permission to build on church land.

The wall - which is due to be more than five miles long in Austria’s eastern Burgenland province (see map below) - was ordered by the government of Catholic Chancellor Werner Feymann in a bid to cut the number of migrants looking to avoid controls at authorised crossings. But owners of property along the fence must agree to allow it on their land.

But in a statement to the Austria Press Agency Diocesan Bishop Ägidius Johann Zsifkovics, who has church authority in the region, confirmed the church's refusal to cooperate because building a fence to keep people seeking help out was against the spirit of the Gospel.

In a statement Zsifkovics said: [A fence] would contradict the spirit of the Gospel, Pope Francis’s clear message to Europe, and in particular for a diocese that was in the shadow of the Iron Curtain for decades. We need to tackle today’s problems at their root and that means stopping organised human trafficking, stopping sales of European arms, stopping war and the deliberate destabilisation of the Middle East."

He added: “I was raised under the Iron Curtain and still know what it meant for us all and for Burgenland for freedom and awakening, as the wall finally fell.” Zsifkovics is the refugee and integration commissioner for the Commission of the Bishops’ Conferences of the European Community.

The stance of the Catholic Church in Austria is just one voice in a debate about migration that is polarising the country. In the first round of voting for a new president - a largely ceremonial role but a significant poll ahead of general elections in 2018 - a renegade far-right anti-migration candidate took a clear lead after Sunday's voting.

Freedom Party candidate Norbert Hofer garnered 36.4 per cent of the vote, ahead of pro-migrant candidate Alexander Van der Bellen, who secured nearly 20.4 per cent of the vote. The two ruling coalition parties fared poorly, each receiving around 11 per cent of the vote. It is the first time in Austria since the Second World War that any incumbent party has not made it to the second round of voting.

Elsewhere this weekend, Austrian police were forced to repel protesters from the Italian side of the border who were angry at plans for tighter border checks at the busy Alpine Brenner Pass border. The Pass is the most important Alpine crossing for heavy goods traffic and the controls, which are expected to begin in May, would slow Italy's main transport link to Germany, its top trading partner.

Meanwhile, two British nationals - aged 26 and 31 - were arrested by Hungarian police on Saturday night (23 April) accused of trying to transport more than a dozen migrants illegally to Austria.

Missing links brewed in primordial puddles?

The crucibles that bore out early building blocks of life may have been, in many cases, modest puddles.

Now, researchers working with that hypothesis have achieved a significant advancement toward understanding an evolutionary mystery—how components of RNA and DNA formed from chemicals present on early Earth before life existed.

In surprisingly simple laboratory reactions in water, under everyday conditions, they have produced what could be good candidates for missing links on the pathway to the code of life.

And when those components joined up, the result even looked like RNA.

Nearly twins and possibly keys to a unlocking the mystery of the evolution of life-coding molecules. Nicholas Hud holds up Uracil, on the right, a nucleobase of RNA. Barbituric acid, on the left, looks very much like it and could have been part of a proto-RNA that preceded RNA.

As the researchers' work progresses, it could reveal that much of the original chemistry that led to life arose not in fiery cataclysms and in scarce quantities, but abundantly and gradually on quiet, rain-swept dirt flats or lakeshore rocks lapped by waves.

In turn, their work could increase our understanding of the probability of life's existence elsewhere in the universe.

The research from the NSF/NASA Center for Chemical Evolution, headquartered at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is generously funded through a grant from the National Science Foundation and NASA. The recent results were published on April 25, 2016 in Nature Communications.

Pursuing the origins specifically of RNA, the close chemical relative of DNA, a research team led by Nicholas Hud, a professor in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology and director of the CCE, worked with a pair of potential chemical ancestors of the nucleobases of RNA.

For roughly half a century, scientists have hypothesized that life, which uses DNA to store genetic information, was preceded by life forms that used RNA very broadly. And RNA may have had a precursor, proto-RNA, with different but similar nucleotides (the "N" in RNA).

"Early Earth was a messy laboratory where probably many molecules like those needed for life were produced. Some survived and prospered, while others eventually vanished," Hud said. "That goes for the ancestors of RNA, too."

Using two molecules known as barbituric acid and melamine, the researchers formed proto-nucleotides so strongly resembling two of RNA's nucleotides that it is tempting to speculate that they are indeed their ancestors.

The two ingredients would have been readily abundant for reactions on a prebiotic Earth, Hud said. "And they would have been well suited for primitive information coding," he added.

Because of the resemblances and properties, some scientists already have speculated on an ancestral role for melamine and barbituric acid.

But the CCE scientists are careful not to jump to that conclusion just yet.

"To claim ancestry, we would have to show a mechanism by which these nucleotides we made in the lab could turn into the existing nucleotides in RNA," said Ram Krishnamurthy, Hud's collaborator from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. "It's a complex path that we'd have to at least design on paper, and we're not there."

Nonetheless, he's exited about the results. "There are umpteen possibilities of how that mechanism could have happened. Barbituric acid and melamine may have been place holders that dropped out and allowed adenine and uracil to come together with ribose."

Figuring out how adenine and uracil (nucleobases found in RNA today) combined with the sugar ribose (corresponding to the "R" in RNA) could answer one of the great questions of chemical evolution.

The formation of nucleotides from possible proto-nucleobases and ribose marks a significant advancement in research on the origin of life.

Nucleobases have been combined with other sugars in past studies, but the efficiency of the reactions discovered in this study is much greater than those of that past.

"We're getting close to molecules that look the way life may have looked in early stages," Krishnamurthy said.

A series of surprises added to the reactions' scientific significance.

First, they occurred quickly and the resulting nucleotides spontaneously paired with each other in water, forming hydrogen bonds like the Watson-Crick base pairs that create the "ladder-rung" pattern inside RNA and DNA helixes.

Then the monomers formed long, supramolecular assemblages that look like strands of RNA when viewed with a high resolution microscope.

There has been no reported chemical reaction so far that has produced existing components of RNA under commonplace circumstances that spontaneously form Crick-Watson pairs in water.

And up until now, there had also been no report of a similar pair of nucleotides, like those produced with barbituric acid and melamine, behaving in a like manner, making this another first.

"It works even better then we thought," Hud said. "It's almost too easy."

There was one small caveat.

"The reaction does not work as well if barbituric acid and melamine are present in the same solution before reacting with ribose because their strong attraction for each other can cause them to precipitate," Hud said. So, the scientists completed the reaction involving barbituric acid separately from the one involving melamine.

But that should not have proven prohibitive on prebiotic Earth. Barbituric acid and melamine nucleotides could have been formed in separate locations, even in the same pond. And they could have very well been plentiful.

"These reactions are exceptionally productive, especially if you compare them to analogous reactions with existing RNA components, which do not produce any nucleotides under the same conditions," Hud said.

If melamine and barbituric acid formed their respective nucleotides (C-BMP for barbituric acid and MMP for melamine) in separate puddles on the early Earth, then rain could have easily washed the components together, where they would have rapidly assembled into what could have been a precursor to proto-RNA.

"The question is: Can these self-assemblies make the transition into what makes up life today," Krishnamurthy said.

The researchers hope their work will help expand the scientific community's approach to chemical evolution.

"If you want to look at what brought about these properties of life you have to go back and consider all the other molecules that would have been present and see how they would have facilitated the molecules that are present in life today," Krishnamurthy said.

Their work also could serve as a basis for important practical applications, such as the creation of DNA or RNA-like polymers that could spawn production of advanced materials and therapeutic agents.

The chemical reactions that produce the barbituric acid and melamine nucleotides don't require the use of enzymes and extreme parameters like high heat and pressure. Reminiscent of click chemistry, they could contribute to safe, cost-effective and abundant industrial production.



In a study published today in Science, researchers announced they have created complex organic molecules by recreating the harsh environment of interstellar space.

The team focused on the conditions of interstellar space vaguely near a star system, where there might be some methane, ammonia, and water floating around. They exposed the mixture to frigid temperatures, low pressure, and ultraviolet radiation (like the light from a distant star). Remarkably, they found that the mixture formed several complex molecules. Among the molecules found were glycerol, an alcohol used on Earth for everything from laxatives to soap, and sorbitol, which we use as a sweetener. But the really exciting find was ribose, one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Once they'd been brought in from the cold, the molecules were also soluble in water, which means that they could actually be used by biologic creatures like ourselves.

Particles like ribose aren't enough to create life by themselves. They'd have to be present in the right environment, with other important components. Other researchers are working on separate pieces of the origin of life puzzle. Last year, a team of researchers from NASA and Caltech showed that electrical impulses crucial to life could be generated by chemical interactions.

If organic molecules can form in such inhospitable conditions, the odds of eventually finding life elsewhere in the universe--and not just on a planet sedately orbiting its sun inside the Goldilocks zone--are looking up. We already know that water and electrical impulses could be found in other places, and this adds another ingredient to the mix.


24 April 2016

New pro-White Respeto Party Founded in Spain

Rafael Ripoll, president of the new far-right Respeto (Respect) party, stated that Respeto aims to defend "national sovereignty of Spain, identity and rights of the middle and working class."

MOSCOW (Sputnik) — The founding congress of the new Spanish far-right Respeto (Respect) party has been held in northeastern city of Tarragona, local media reported Saturday.

According to e-Noticies portal, the establishment of the new political force comprising Plataforma per Catalunya (Platform for Catalonia), Espana 2000 (Spain 2000) and Partido por la Libertad (Party for Freedom), was supported by the German anti-immigration Pegida movement that was represented at the congress by one of its leaders, Tatjana Festerling.
Rafael Ripoll, the leader of Espana 2000, was elected president of the new party and told reporters that Respeto aims to defend "national sovereignty of Spain, identity and rights of the middle and working class."

The media added that at the same time a major antifascist demonstration gathered several hundreds of supporters near the hotel where Respeto's founding congress was held.

Capturing the birth of the universe: Model simulates cosmic particles that appeared seconds after the Big Seed

One of the biggest questions physicists are striving to answer is what happened moments after the Big Seed.

How the universe as we know it now evolved is a complex question involving study by vastly different branches of physics including particle physics, nuclear physics and cosmology.

Now a team in the US has brought together the most recent advances in all of these disciplines to create a computer model simulating the first few minutes after the universe came into existence.

A few seconds after the Big Seed, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles. As the hot universe expanded, the interactions of these particles caused the universe to behave like a cooling thermonuclear reactor. This reactor produced light nuclei, such as hydrogen, helium, and lithium, found in the universe today.

The amounts of the light nuclei created depends on what other particles, like neutrinos, were in the 'soup' and how they interacted with each other. 'Neutrinos are very interesting, they're the second most abundant particle in the universe after photons yet we still have much to learn about them,' said Dr Evan Grohs, co-author of the study. 

'By comparing our calculations with cosmological observables, such as the deuterium abundance,' said Dr Grohs. 'We can use our Burst computer code to test theories regarding neutrinos, along with other, even less understood, particles. It can be difficult to test these theories in terrestrial labs, so our work provides a window into an otherwise inaccessible area of physics.'

The model simulates conditions during the first few minutes of cosmological evolution to model the role of neutrinos, nuclei and other particles in shaping the early universe. It 'promises to open up new avenues for investigating existing puzzles of cosmology,' said Los Alamos physicist Professor Mark Paris. 'These include the nature and origin of visible matter and the properties of the more mysterious dark matter and dark radiation.'

'The frontiers of fundamental physics have traditionally been studied with particle colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, by smashing together subatomic particles at great energies,' said Professor George Fuller, a physicist at the University of San Diego who collaborated with Professor Paris to develop the new theoretical model.

'The Burst computer code allows physicists to exploit the early universe as a laboratory to study the effect of fundamental particles present in the early universe,' Professor Paris said. 'Our new work in neutrino cosmology allows the study of the microscopic, quantum nature of fundamental particles - the basic, subatomic building blocks of nature - by simulating the universe at its largest, cosmological scale.'

The group said the work is important for nuclear data and could help in areas like nuclear energy, safety and security.

'The early universe is becoming such a tightly constrained environment with increasingly good measurements that we can test our descriptions of microscopic quantum physics, such as nuclear cross sections, to high accuracy,' added Professor Paris.

This research has become possible only recently with the advent of astronomers' precision measurements of the amounts of nuclei present in the early universe.  These measurements were made with 'Very Large' telescopes, which are about 32ft (10 metres) wide. The computer code has been developed in anticipation of the data that will be gathered by the next generation of 'extremely large' telescopes.

The telescopes, 98ft (30 metres) across, are currently under construction. 'With coming improvements in cosmological observations, we expect our Burst computer code to be useful for many years to come,' said Professor Paris.

The group is planning to improve the model to exploit the precision cosmological observations to reveal even more exotic physics such as the nature of dark matter and dark radiation.

A complete understanding of dark matter, which comprises about a quarter of the mass in the universe, is currently lacking, Professor Paris said. 

Austria election: Pro-White candidate wins presidential vote

Austria's far-right Freedom Party candidate has come top in the first round of presidential elections, projections show

Austrian far right Freedom Party (FPOe) presidential candidate Norbert Hofer waves with Austrian flags during the final election rally in Vienna, Austria, April 22, 2016.

VIENNA- Initial results show that the candidate of Austria's right-wing, anti-immigrant party has swept the first round of Austria's presidential elections, gathering over 35 percent of the vote and leaving the other five candidates far behind.

The apparent triumph by Norbert Hofer of the Freedom Party reflects wide-spread voter dissatisfaction with the center-left Social Democrats and the centrist Freedom party. The preliminary results from official ballot counts show their candidates with not much more than 10 percent backing each.

Alexander Van der Bellen and Irmgard Griss, who ran as independents, were close to 20 percent. One of them will likely challenge Hofer in the May 22 runoff. That race will likely be closer, with most of those opposed to the Freedom Party giving one of the independents their support.

The Freedom Party's previous best showing was more than 27 percent in elections that decided Austria's membership in the European Union.

Much of Europe has begun lurching politically to the far right as a massive migrant crisis changes the very fabric of society there.


Resurgent Austrian far-right big winners in presidential election:

VIENNA - Austria's anti-immigration far-right triumphed Sunday in the first round of presidential elections, dealing a wake-up call to Vienna's cosy political establishment two years before the next scheduled general election.

Norbert Hofer of the Freedom Party (FPOe) won 36.7 of the vote, projections showed, with candidates from the two governing parties failing to even make it into a runoff on May 22, projections showed.

The result, if confirmed, means that for the first time since 1945, Austria will not have a president backed by either the Social Democrats (SPOe) or their centre-right coalition partners the People's Party (OeVP).

The SPOe's candidate Rudolf Hundstorfer came joint fourth with just 11.2 percent, level with Andreas Khol of the OeVP.

It was the best-ever result at federal level for the FPOe, whose entry into government in 2000 under the late SS-admiring Joerg Haider sent shock waves through Europe.

Support for the two main parties, which have between them run Austria since 1945, has been sliding for years and in the last general election in 2013 they only just garnered enough support to re-form their "grand coalition".

"Like elsewhere in Europe, we are witnessing the downfall of the traditional parties," political analyst Peter Hajek told AFP.

Having a president in the Habsburg dynasty's former palace in Vienna not from either of the two main parties could shake up the traditionally staid and consensus-driven world of Austrian politics.

Hofer -- the "friendly face of the FPOe" who likes to carry his Glock gun in public -- has threatened to fire the government if it fails to get tougher on migrants.

Van der Bellen has said he would refuse to swear in FPOe leader Heinz-Christian Strache as chancellor in 2018 if his party comes first in elections then.

"The role is like that of a sleeping giant who has a lot more authority than people are aware of," legal expert Manfried Welan told AFP.

"I can only say that I have a good feeling that things are looking good," Hofer said as he cast his vote on Sunday morning.