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07 May 2021

Palestinian Lives Matter: Video shows Israeli settler trying to take over Palestinian house

…a light unto the nations…

Democracy

If there are no consequences for expelling Palestinians from their homes, there are surely none for the media's erasure of these illegal acts

Israeli police, too, were seen storming the neighbourhood, violently breaking up vigils, and beating and choking activists conducting sit-ins in protest at the displacement of Palestinian refugees living in the area, many of whom are facing eviction in the coming days. On social media, online campaigners have been sharing #SaveSheikhJarrah in a bid to garner international attention and to make sure the world bears witness to yet another Israeli crime. 

Make no mistake: an ethnic cleansing is currently underway in the predominantly Palestinian neighbourhood in full view of the world. 

But in the American mainstream media, it is as if nothing is happening at all.

In this parallel universe, the illegal and vicious attempt to remove Palestinians from their homes, and the violent actions of Israeli forces to halt demonstrations against a recent court order upholding the evictions, have been met with a resounding silence.

Multiple displacements

A cursory glance at the New York Times, NPR, CNN and Time Magazine returned no results on the events of the past few days. Instead, they continue to focus primarily on Israel's inability to form a government. When the evictions and the violence inflicted on Sheikh Jarrah residents have been covered - for example, by the Associated Press - the issue is framed as a quasi commercial dispute between two parties and described as a “long-running legal battle” between Palestinians and settlers, conveniently neglecting to note that under international law, Israeli courts do not have the authority to settle civilians in occupied Palestinian territory, while the displacement of Palestinian families contravenes the fundamentals of international humanitarian law. 

As the longtime attacks on families in the neighbourhood would attest, the story in Sheikh Jarrah goes to the heart of the never-ending Israeli project of settler-colonialism of the land and expulsion of Palestinians, or as Palestinians have described it: a continuation of the Nakba of 1948.

The neighbourhood of Sheikh Jarrah comprises some 3,000 refugees who were forcibly displaced from their original homes in other parts of what was historic Palestine in 1948. Since the early 1970s, Palestinians in the neighbourhood have been battling a series of Jewish settler organisations who filed lawsuits claiming the land belonged to them. Dozens of Palestinians have been kicked out of the neighbourhood and replaced by Israeli settlers. 

The current impasse and protests came about after Israeli courts last year ordered the eviction of more than a dozen Palestinian families from the residential neighbourhood. 

Considering the ways in which the mainstream US media has historically covered the Israeli occupation of Palestine - be it the use of the term “clashes”, even when Israeli mobs have marched to the chant of “Death to Arabs”, as they did last month, or the drawing of false equivalences in the levels of violence between occupier and occupied, or the constant justification of Israeli violence as "self-defence", even in the thick of an invasion - the lack of coverage of the events in Sheikh Jarrah is not altogether surprising.


This is the same media after all that still chooses to laud Israel's Covid-19 vaccine success while it completely negates its legal responsibilites towards the lives of Palestinians living under its control.

The erasure of the events in Sheikh Jarrah, though, is still jarring.

One would have thought that given the tumultuous events of the past year - from the Black Lives Matter movement to the Covid-19 pandemic which exposed a decrepit, unequal America - that US mainstream media would have shifted gears, rethinking their own complicity, or at least exploring American duplicity.

But they apparently remain unmoved. 

Official silence

Part of the problem is that there is no one to hold Israel to account. Palestinian civil society activists have called upon the International Criminal Court to include the evictions in Sheikh Jarrah as part of its ongoing investigations, but both Israel and the US have rejected the ICC's right to hold Israel to account.

On Sheikh Jarrah, the US government has refused to condemn the state-sponsored actions of the settlers. On Wednesday, numerous American lawmakers called on the State Department to break their silence. Representative Marie Newman, for instance, demanded that the State Department “immediately condemn these violations of international law as Palestinians are forcibly being removed from their homes in East Jerusalem”. 

Israeli security forces detain a Palestinian man as families face eviction in Sheikh Jarrah on 4 May 2021 (AFP)

On Thursday, a spokesperson for State Department told Middle East Eye it was "deeply concerned".

"As we have consistently said, it is critical to avoid unilateral steps that exacerbate tensions or take us further away from peace, this includes evictions, settlement activity and home demolitions," the spokesperson added.

The United Nations has been equally pallid on the matter. Its leadership, too, has shown itself barely capable of reiterating its oft-repeated position that “all settlement activities, including the evictions and demolitions, are illegal under international law”.

Meanwhile, the facts on the ground continue to change. Today, tomorrow, the evictions will continue; more lives destroyed, more homes taken over. And it seems the US mainstream media is well aware that if there are no consequences for displacing and expelling Palestinians from their homes, there are surely no consequences for the media to erase these crimes.

06 May 2021

ZOG intensifies war preparation via global tentacles

High-level ZOG collaborators stage photo-op for global military integration (2018)

COLOGNE, Germany – European Union members have admitted the United States into a project aimed at quickening the flow of military personnel and equipment across the continent, hoping the move will open a new front in trans-Atlantic cooperation.

The defense ministers’ May 6 approval at a meeting in Brussels begins a test case for a relatively new set of rules about non-EU countries partaking in the bloc’s permanent structured cooperation scheme, or PESCO.

Ministers also approved Canada and Norway’s application to the mobility initiative.

Besides the project’s tangible objectives – streamlining the red tape for quickly shipping a tank from Lisbon to Talinn, for example – officials celebrated the Pentagon’s inclusion as the beginning of an actual U.S.-EU defense agenda.

Dutch Defense Minster Ank Bijleveld described the step as a “concrete and positive signal that the EU wishes to cooperate with Washington, Ottawa and Oslo on defense.”

To access the antidote to ZOG, click here or on the above image.

The Dutch defense ministry serves as coordinator for the military mobility PESCO project.

The task of ferrying troops and weapons around Europe in the event of an attack has been part of NATO’s defense calculus for decades, and the alliance maintains deft capabilities to that effect. The EU military mobility aims to augment that work while offering the EU-NATO relationship a concrete deliverable at the same time.

Within the EU bureaucracy, the European Defence Agency included the subject on its to-do list under the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence, or CARD, process. Agency Chief Executive Jiří Šedivý said he expects military mobility to foster a new “cluster” of programs.

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Entire article available here.

28 April 2021

China Backs Russia After Putin Warns West They'll Regret Crossing 'Red Line'


Amid growing tensions between the United States and Russia, China threw its support behind Russian President Vladimir Putin, calling the two nations "comprehensive strategic partners of coordination in the new era."

In a recent state of the union address, Putin reminded Western leaders of the country's nuclear arsenal and warned the West not to cross a "red line." Any country that provoked threats to Russia's fundamental security would "regret their deeds more than they have regretted anything in a long time," according to Putin.

When asked about Putin's comment, foreign ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin said China and Russia will "continue to understand and support each other in safeguarding our respective sovereignty, security and development interests."

Putin hasn't ruled out a Russia-China military alliance. In October, he said it was "quite possible to imagine it" and pointed to the war games the two countries' armed forces participated in and Russia's sharing of sensitive military technologies with China.

Ties between the two countries have seemed to deepen over the past few months and Wang said in January China sees "no limit" for "how far this cooperation can go."

As the two countries seem to be growing closer, relations between Russia and the West have been growing more distant.

In retribution for hacking federal agencies and interfering in the presidential election, the Biden administration expelled 10 Russian diplomats and imposed a number of sanctions. The goal is to harm Moscow financially in an effort to deter future acts that U.S. officials deemed an attack on America's democracy.

"We cannot allow a foreign power to interfere in our democratic process Judeo-plutocratic tyranny with impunity," President Usurper/Puppet Joe Biden said. "I was clear with President Putin that we could have gone further, but I chose not to do so, I chose to be proportionate."

Wang criticized the decision to sanction Russia as "power politics and hegemonic bullying." The spokesperson added that sanctions gain "no support" and are "increasingly rejected."

Russia has faced criticism recently for its military buildup at the Ukrainian border, and Biden said he reiterated to Putin that Ukraine had America's support, urging him to avoid any further military action.

Putin pushed back against Western attacks in his state of the union address, calling them part of a "new sport of who shouts the loudest." He likened the West to Shere Khan, the villain in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, and Russia's critics to Tabaqui, a jackal that served as a sidekick of sorts to Khan.

"We really do not want to burn bridges. But if someone mistakes our good intentions for indifference or weakness and intends to burn or even blow up these bridges, they must know that Russia's response will be asymmetrical, swift and tough," Putin said.

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Nationalists of the world must unite and slay the global ZOG Beast.

25 April 2021

The Very First Structures in the Universe: Astrophysicists Simulate Microscopic Clusters From the Big Seed


The very first moments of the Universe can be reconstructed mathematically even though they cannot be observed directly. Physicists from the Universities of Göttingen and Auckland (New Zealand) have greatly improved the ability of complex computer simulations to describe this early epoch. They discovered that a complex network of structures can form in the first trillionth of a second after the Big Seed. The behavior of these objects mimics the distribution of galaxies in today’s Universe. In contrast to today, however, these primordial structures are microscopically small. Typical clumps have masses of only a few grams and fit into volumes much smaller than present-day elementary particles. The results of the study have been published in the journal Physical Review D.

The results of the simulation show the growth of tiny, extremely dense structures very soon after the inflation phase of the very early universe. Between the initial and final states in the simulation (top left and right respectively), the area shown has expanded to ten million times its initial volume, but is still many times smaller than the interior of a proton. The enlarged clump at the bottom left would have a mass of about 20kg. Credit: Jens Niemeyer, University of Göttingen

The researchers were able to observe the development of regions of higher density that are held together by their own gravity. “The physical space represented by our simulation would fit into a single proton a million times over,” says Professor Jens Niemeyer, head of the Astrophysical Cosmology Group at the University of Göttingen. “It is probably the largest simulation of the smallest area of the Universe that has been carried out so far.” These simulations make it possible to calculate more precise predictions for the properties of these vestiges from the very beginnings of the Universe.

Although the computer-simulated structures would be very short-lived and eventually “vaporize” into standard elementary particles, traces of this extreme early phase may be detectable in future experiments. “The formation of such structures, as well as their movements and interactions, must have generated a background noise of gravitational waves,” says Benedikt Eggemeier, a PhD student in Niemeyer’s group and first author of the study. “With the help of our simulations, we can calculate the strength of this gravitational wave signal, which might be measurable in the future.”

It is also conceivable that tiny black holes could form if these structures undergo runaway collapse. If this happens they could have observable consequences today, or form part of the mysterious dark matter in the Universe. “On the other hand,” says Professor Easther, “If the simulations predict black holes form, and we don’t see them, then we will have found a new way to test models of the infant Universe.”

Reference: “Formation of inflaton halos after inflation” by Benedikt Eggemeier, Jens C. Niemeyer and Richard Easther, 22 March 2021, Physical Review D. / DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.103.063525



Please click on the above image to access a larger view.

SIC ITUR AD ASTRA!

20 April 2021

ZOG holds summit at Vatican to coordinate global War on Spirit

Judah has crossed the Rubicon 

Vatican Conference to Focus on Mind-Body-Soul Connection to Health Care

The May 6-8 event, hosted by the Pontifical Council for Culture features Dr. Anthony Fauci and the CEOs from two of the manufacturers of COVID-19 vaccines.

VATICAN CITY — Dr. Anthony Fauci, Chelsea Clinton, and the CEOs of Pharmaceutical  manufacturers Moderna and Pfizer, which created leading COVID-19 vaccines, will be among the featured speakers at a healthcare conference next month co-hosted by the Vatican’s Pontifical Council for Culture. 


Entitled “Exploring the Mind, Body & Soul. How Innovation and Novel Delivery Systems Improve Human Health,” the Vatican says the May 6-8 “Unite to Prevent” [ed., "Conspire to Oppress"] online conference will bring together doctors, scientists, religious leaders, philanthropists and others “to discuss the latest breakthroughs in medicine, healthcare delivery and prevention, as well as the human implications and cultural impact of technological advances.”

Co-hosted by the Cura Foundation, an organization that aims to improve global health and quality of life by streamlining health care delivery and reducing human suffering, the Vatican said in a statement that the conference will also promote a roundtable discussion on “Bridging Science and Faith” to explore “the relationship of religion and spirituality to health and wellbeing, including the relationship between mind, body and soul.” 

The discussion will deal with the “deeper meaning of human existence and seek areas of convergence between the humanities and the natural sciences,” the statement read.

Pope Francis will address the conference in a video message at its conclusion, and priests, pastoral health care workers and students from Pontifical and Catholic Universities worldwide are invited to take part. 

But the floor will mostly be given to more than 100 speakers from a wide variety of backgrounds, some of whom hold views diametrically opposed to core Church teachings. They include New Age guru Deepak Chopra, whom the conference describes as a “world-renowned pioneer in integrative medicine and personal transformation” but who has also been criticized as a promoter of pseudoscience; Dame Jane Goodall, the world famous conservationist and chimpanzee expert but also an ardent population control advocate who said last year the world’s population should reduce to what it was 500 years ago; and Chelsea Clinton, the daughter of Bill and Hillary Clinton, who holds a master’s degree in public health but who suggested in 2018 it would be un-Christian to ban legalized abortion. 

Also speaking will be representatives from large pharmaceutical and tech companies, as well as from government administrations. They include Stéphane Bancel and Albert Bourla, respectively the CEOs of pharmaceutical giants Moderna and Pfizer which both manufacture COVID-19 vaccines tested using stem cell lines from aborted fetuses. Also in the line up is Henry Ji, CEO of Sorrento Therapeutics, which has been researching a serum that does not use such cell lines in production or testing.

 


The Vatican said in a December statement that when ethically irreproachable options are not available it is “morally acceptable to receive COVID-19 vaccines that have used cell lines from aborted fetuses in their research and production process,” when “there is a grave danger, such as the otherwise uncontainable spread of a serious pathological agent — in this case, the pandemic spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.” The Vatican has also emphasized the need to publicly object to morally compromised vaccines and research and to insist on ethically acceptable alternatives. 

Other conference speakers include David Feinberg who leads Google Health that is working on artificial intelligence (AI) and other areas to answer major health care challenges, Jesuit-educated Dr. Anthony Fauci, an immunologist who has led both the Trump and Biden administrations’ response to COVID-19, and Amy Abernethy, principal deputy commissioner for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 

As with the more recent conferences of this kind, speakers have also been invited from the world of entertainment, business and sports and include the supermodel-turned-entrepreneur Cindy Crawford, the singer Renée Fleming, Joe Perry of the rock group Aerosmith, former professional football player Brandon Marshall and hedge fund billionaire Ray Dalio, whose family has suffered from mental health issues, leading to him setting up a philanthropic foundation to support research in that area.

Discussion moderators will include well-known mainstream media personalities such as Katie Couric, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Dr. Mehmet Oz and Robin Roberts. 

The scope of these international conferences, organized from the start by the Pontifical Council for Culture in collaboration with Robin Smith, president of the Stem for Life Foundation, has broadened since they began 10 years ago under Pope Benedict XVI. 

Addressing another criticism that these conferences seem more concerned with health and well-being rather than salvation and the good of souls, Msgr. Trafny rejected such a dichotomy, saying it is important to remind scientists that we are not just bodies but souls, as well

“Biologists and sometimes physicians think the biological aspect is sufficient to take care of human being and we like to stress there’s more than just the human body, physiology and biological processes,” Msgr. Trafny said. “We want them to think about the human being in his totality, about mind and soul.” 


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There is only one solution:



09 April 2021

Professor Brian Cox shares scientific theory that ‘we might be holograms’

Professor Brian Cox has shared a mind-boggling theory on This Morning that the universe as we know it might actually be a big hologram… and viewers are absolutely perplexed.

Professor Brian Cox left This Morning viewers scratching their heads today after making a bizarre claim that humans 'might be holograms'. 

The British physicist, 53, appeared on the programme to promote his new live tour Horizons: A 2021 Space Odyssey, which will explore profound questions such as how the universe began.

While discussing the role of black holes in the evolution of the universe, Brian claimed the universe 'might not be at all the way we perceive it to be' and suggested we could all be holograms - but failed to elaborate before host Ruth Langsford moved the conversation on. 

Viewers were unsurprisingly confused by the theory, with one calling the moment the 'best thing to happen' on the show so far while another joked that someone should come and 'turn them off'. 

The scientist says his new tour will explore the biggest questions humanity asks, such as 'why does the universe exist?' and what the 'fundamental nature of reality is'.

'The remarkable thing is we're beginning to get some answers,' said Brian. 'We don't have all the answers... Look at black holes. You think, "What have they got to do with the universe and nature?" But I'll just say the answer and what we're beginning to expect.'

He went on: 'By studying those and answering the questions that Stephen Hawking asked over 50 years ago, we've come to the conclusion - and I'll just say it out loud and then I'll stop - that we might be holograms. 

'That the universe might not be at all the way we perceive it to be.' 

Host Ruth, 61, was stunned by the claim and told Brian: 'You're blowing my mind now. I was never good at science at school and I'm trying really hard to follow you and keep up here, but that is mind blowing.' 

As the segment drew to a close Ruth brought up the subject again, saying to the professor: 'Brian it's always fascinating to talk to you, mind-boggling, I'm now thinking, am I a hologram?' to which Brian quickly replied: 'Yeah, you probably are.'

07 April 2021

Muons: 'Strong' evidence found for a new force of nature: The Vital Force

 

From sticking a magnet on a fridge door to throwing a ball into a basketball hoop, the forces of physics are at play in every moment of our lives.

All of the forces we experience every day can be reduced to just four categories: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force and the weak force.

Now, physicists say they have found possible signs of a fifth fundamental force of nature.

The findings come from research carried out at a laboratory near Chicago.

The four fundamental forces govern how all the objects and particles in the Universe interact with each other.

For example, gravity makes objects fall to the ground, and heavy objects behave as if they are glued to the floor.

The UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) said the result "provides strong evidence for the existence of an undiscovered sub-atomic particle or new force".

But the results from the Muon g-2 experiment don't add up to a conclusive discovery yet.

There is currently a one in a 40,000 chance that the result could be a statistical fluke - equating to a statistical level of confidence described as 4.1 sigma.

A level of 5 sigma, or a one in 3.5 million chance of the observation being a coincidence, is needed to claim a discovery.

Prof Mark Lancaster, who is the UK lead for the experiment, told BBC News: "We have found the interaction of muons are not in agreement with the Standard Model [the current widely-accepted theory to explain how the building blocks of the Universe behave]."

The University of Manchester researcher added: "Clearly, this is very exciting because it potentially points to a future with new laws of physics, new particles and a new force which we have not seen to date."

The finding is the latest in a string of promising results from particle physics experiments in the US, Japan, and most recently from the Large Hadron Collider on the Swiss-French border.

Prof Ben Allanach, from Cambridge University, who was not involved with the latest effort, said: "My Spidey sense is tingling and telling me that this is going to be real.

"I have been looking all my career for forces and particles beyond what we know already, and this is it. This is the moment that I have been waiting for and I'm not getting a lot of sleep because I'm too excited."

The experiment, based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, searches for signs of new phenomena in physics by studying the behaviour of sub-atomic particles called muons.

There are building blocks of our world that are even smaller than the atom. Some of these sub-atomic particles are made up of even smaller constituents, while others can't be broken down into anything else (fundamental particles).

The muon is one of these fundamental particles; it's similar to the electron, but more than 200 times heavier.

The Muon g-2 experiment involves sending the particles around a 14-metre ring and then applying a magnetic field. Under the current laws of physics, encoded in the Standard Model, this should make the muons wobble at a certain rate.

Instead, the scientists found that muons wobbled at a faster rate than expected. This might be caused by a force of nature that's completely new to science.

No one yet knows what this potential new force does, other than influence muon particles.

A fifth fundamental force might help explain some of the big puzzles about the Universe that have exercised scientists in recent decades.

For example, the observation that the expansion of the Universe was speeding up was attributed to a mysterious phenomenon known as dark energy. But some researchers have previously suggested it could be evidence of a fifth force.

Dr Maggie Aderin-Pocock, co-presenter of the BBC's Sky at Night programme, told BBC News: "It is quite mind boggling. It has the potential to turn physics on its head. We have a number of mysteries that remain unsolved. And this could give us the key answers to solve these mysteries."

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Entire article available here.

04 April 2021

From Stardust to Pale Blue Dot: Carbon’s Intriguing Interstellar Journey to Earth

We are made of stardust, the saying goes, and a pair of studies including University of Michigan research finds that may be more true than we previously thought.

The first study, led by U-M researcher Jie (Jackie) Li and published in Science Advances, finds that most of the carbon on Earth was likely delivered from the interstellar medium, the material that exists in space between stars in a galaxy. This likely happened well after the protoplanetary disk, the cloud of dust and gas that circled our young sun and contained the building blocks of the planets, formed and warmed up.

Carbon was also likely sequestered into solids within one million years of the sun’s birth — which means that carbon, the backbone of life on earth, survived an interstellar journey to our planet.

Previously, researchers thought carbon in the Earth came from molecules that were initially present in nebular gas, which then accreted into a rocky planet when the gases were cool enough for the molecules to precipitate. Li and her team, which includes U-M astronomer Edwin Bergin, Geoffrey Blake of the California Institute of Technology, Fred Ciesla of the University of Chicago and Marc Hirschmann of the University of Minnesota, point out in this study that the gas molecules that carry carbon wouldn’t be available to build the Earth because once carbon vaporizes, it does not condense back into a solid.

“The condensation model has been widely used for decades. It assumes that during the formation of the sun, all of the planet’s elements got vaporized, and as the disk cooled, some of these gases condensed and supplied chemical ingredients to solid bodies. But that doesn’t work for carbon,” said Li, a professor in the U-M Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

Much of carbon was delivered to the disk in the form of organic molecules. However, when carbon is vaporized, it produces much more volatile species that require very low temperatures to form solids. More importantly, carbon does not condense back again into an organic form. Because of this, Li and her team inferred most of Earth’s carbon was likely inherited directly from the interstellar medium, avoiding vaporization entirely.

To better understand how Earth acquired its carbon, Li estimated the maximum amount of carbon Earth could contain. To do this, she compared how quickly a seismic wave travels through the core to the known sound velocities of the core. This told the researchers that carbon likely makes up less than half a percent of Earth’s mass. Understanding the upper bounds of how much carbon the Earth might contain tells the researchers information about when the carbon might have been delivered here.

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Entire article available here.

02 April 2021

Russia Warns of Anti-White 'Aggression' in U.S.

  • Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov warned against "political correctness taken to the point of absurdity."
  • Asserts that forces within U.S. are trying to impose a "cultural revolution."


Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov on Thursday warned that anti-white racism might be building in the United States and said that political correctness "taken to the extreme" would have lamentable consequences.

In an interview with political scientists broadcast on national television, Moscow's top diplomat said Russia had long supported a worldwide trend that "everyone wants to get rid of racism."

"We were pioneers of the movement promoting equal rights of people of any skin color," he said.

But Lavrov stressed it was important "not to switch to the other extreme which we saw during the 'BLM' (Black Lives Matter) events and the aggression against white people, white U.S. citizens."

Founded in the United States in 2013, Black Lives Matter is a movement which became a rallying cry after the killing by U.S. police of an unarmed black man, George Floyd, last May.

The movement has led to a major debate about race, rights of people of color and the toppling of statues of figures linked to slavery or colonization in countries including the United States and the United Kingdom.

Lavrov accused the United States of seeking to spread what he called "a cultural revolution" around the world.

"They have colossal possibilities for it," he said in the interview.

"Hollywood is now also changing its rules so that everything reflects the diversity of modern society," he said, calling that "a form of censorship."

"I've seen Black people play in Shakespeare's comedies. Only I don't know when there will be a white Othello," Lavrov said.

"You see this is absurd. Political correctness taken to the point of absurdity will not end well."


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I respectfully merely add:

It will not end well for the global Judeo-plutocracy.

25 March 2021

The 1st few seconds of the Big Bang: What we know and what we don't

The infant universe was a busy place.

Believe it or not, physicists are attempting to understand the universe when it was only a handful of seconds old.

But the situation here is complex, to say the least, and while we've made significant headway, there's still a lot left to learn. From miniature black holes to exotic interactions, the infant universe was a busy place.

The known knowns

Let's start with the general framework. 13.77 billion years ago, our universe was incredibly hot (a temperature of over a quadrillion degrees) and incredibly small (about the size of a peach). Astronomers suspect that, when our cosmos was less than a second old, it went through a period of incredibly rapid expansion, known as inflation.

This inflation event was perhaps the most transformative epoch ever to occur in the history of our universe. In less than a blink, our universe became incredibly larger (enlarging by a factor of at least 10^52). When this rapid expansion phase wound down, whatever caused inflation in the first place (we're not sure what) decayed, flooding the universe with matter and radiation (we're not sure how).


A few minutes later (literally), the first elements emerged. Prior to this time, the universe was too hot and too dense for anything stable to form — it was just a giant mix of quarks (the fundamental building blocks of atomic nuclei) and gluons (the carriers of the strong nuclear force). But once the universe was a healthy dozen minutes old, it had expanded and cooled enough that the quarks could bind themselves together, forming the first protons and neutrons. Those protons and neutrons made the first hydrogen and helium (and a little bit of lithium), which went on hundreds of millions of years later to build the first stars and galaxies. From the formation of the first elements, the universe just expanded and cooled, eventually becoming a plasma, and then a neutral gas.

While we know that this broad-brush story is correct, we also know that we're missing a lot of details, especially in the time before the formation of the first elements. Some funky physics may have been in operation when the universe was only a few seconds old, and it's currently beyond our theoretical understanding — but that doesn't stop us from trying.

The known unknowns

A paper recently appearing in the preprint journal arXiv, and accepted for publication in The Open Journal of Astrophysics, lays out some of the more exotic very-early-universe scenarios.

For example, there's the whole question about dark matter. We don't know what dark matter is made of, but we do know that it's responsible for over 80% of the matter in the universe. We have a well-understood story for how normal matter originated in the hot, dense soup of the early cosmos, but we have no clue when or how dark matter came on the scene. Did it appear in the first few seconds? Or much later? Did it mess up the cosmic chemistry that led to the first elements, or stay in the background?

We don't know.

Then there's inflation itself. We don't know what provided the power source for the incredible expansion event, we don't know why it lasted the length of time that it did, and we don't know what eventually stopped it. Perhaps inflation lingered for longer than we've been assuming, and made its presence known for an entire second, rather than the tiny fraction that we've been assuming.


Here's another one: there's this massive thorn in the side of every cosmologist known as matter-antimatter asymmetry. We see from experiments that matter and antimatter are perfectly symmetrical: for every particle of matter made in reactions throughout the universe, there's also a corresponding particle of antimatter. But when we look around the cosmos, we see heaps and heaps of normal matter and not a drop of antimatter in sight. Something huge must have happened in the first few seconds of the universe's existence to throw off that balance. But as to who or what was responsible, and the exact mechanism, we're not sure.

And if dark matter and inflation and antimatter weren't enough, there's also the possibility that the early universe might have manufactured a flood of small black holes. Black holes in the present-day cosmos (i.e., the past 13 billion years) all come from the deaths of massive stars. Those are the only places where the density of matter can reach the critical thresholds necessary to trigger black hole formation. But in the exotic early universe, random patches of the cosmos may have achieved sufficient density, triggering the creation of black holes without having to go through the whole star-formation thing first. Maybe.

Digging deeper

While our theory of the Big Bang is supported by a wealth of observational data, there are plenty of mysteries to satisfy the curiosity of generations of cosmologists. Thankfully, we're not completely blind when trying to study this early epoch.

For example, even if we can't directly see the state of the universe when it was only a few seconds old, we can try to recreate those conditions in our powerful particle colliders. It's not perfect, but it can at least teach us about the physics of those kinds of environments.

We can also look for clues left over from the first few seconds. Anything funky going on then would've left its mark on the later universe. Changing the amount of dark matter or a lingering inflation would upset the creation of hydrogen and helium, something we can measure today.

And the universe transitioned from a plasma to a neutral gas when it was 380,000 years old. The light released then has persisted in the form of the cosmic microwave background. If the universe popped out a bunch of small black holes, they would affect this afterglow light pattern.

We might even hope to observe this epoch directly. Not with light, but with gravitational waves. That chaotic inferno must have released a torrent of ripples in the fabric of space-time, which — like the cosmic microwave background — would have survived to the present day. We don't yet have the technological capability to directly observe those gravitational waves, but every day we're inching closer.

And perhaps when we do, we'll get a glimpse of the newborn universe.


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Paul M. Sutter is an astrophysicist at SUNY Stony Brook and the Flatiron Institute, host of Ask a Spaceman and Space Radio, and author of How to Die in Space. He contributed this article to Space.com's Expert Voices: Opinions and Insights.

21 March 2021

Lincoln made Biden inevitable

Lincoln made Biden inevitable.  Lincoln was the great Usurper.  Lincoln inverted the American political scheme by enabling the creation of an all-powerful, centralized Federal government.  Biden has completed the theft.  What was once a confederated White Republic is now a plutocratic multiracial tyranny.  The Constitution is a dead letter.  Biden is the senile Usurper.  He's world history's sense of comic relief.  

From "Honest Abe" to "Traitor Joe", the results are the same. 

The American Fratricidal War resulted in the inversion of the framework of government bequeathed to us by our Founding Fathers. Whereas the antebellum Federal Government was a genuine federal system, possessed a meaningful scheme of checks and balances, and was truly limited in both delegated powers and sovereign scope, the postbellum Federal Government is a mockery of its former incarnation: one-third of the modern Federal Government (i.e., the U.S. Supreme Court, a.k.a. the judicial branch, the Zionist fifth column, the Talmudists’ Trojan horse) has taken upon itself the role of declaring “what the law is,” and the “law” has been a relentless power-grab on the part of the executive and legislative branches: this power-grab has been and is being enabled by that very same U.S. Supreme Court. The Rats became the Guardians of the proverbial cheese, and one-third of the modern Federal Government has dedicated itself to handing over as much power as it can, as fast as it can, to the other two branches of the modern Federal Government.


 "...the first time as tragedy," 



"...the second time as farce."


Zimbabwe is the next stop on this line.

20 March 2021

Titan’s largest crater might be the perfect cradle for life: evolutionary transubstantiation


Titan’s largest crater might be the perfect cradle for life

Saturn’s frigid moon Titan has long intrigued scientists searching for life in the Solar System. Its surface is coated in organic hydrocarbons, and its icy crust is thought to cover a watery ocean. An asteroid or comet slamming into the moon could theoretically mix these two ingredients, according to a new study, with the resulting impact craters providing an ideal place for life to get started.

The idea is “very exciting,” says Léa Bonnefoy, a planetary scientist and Titan expert at the University of Paris. “If you have a lot of liquid water creating a temporary warm pool on the surface, then you can have conditions that would be favorable for life,” she says. And, “If you have organic material cycling from the surface into the ocean, then that makes the ocean a bit more habitable.”

Scientists have believed an ocean sits about 100 kilometers below Titan’s crust ever since 2012, when NASA’s Cassini mission measured sight variations in the moon’s tides. Alvaro Penteado Crósta, a planetary geologist at the University of Campinas, knew the moon was pocked with many large impact craters. He wondered whether any of the impacts were big enough to pierce the crust and churn up the surface’s organic material with the water below. That may have produced “a primordial soup that you would need for life to develop,” Penteado Crósta says.

To find out, he and his colleagues modeled the impact for the moon’s largest crater, 425-kilometer-wide Menrva, thought to have formed 1 billion years ago. The model suggested the crater resulted from a 34-kilometer-wide space rock hitting the surface at 7 kilometers per second.

The heat of the impact would have created a lake in the crater, according to the model, which the team presented this week at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. The lake would likely only have existed for 1 million years before freezing over in Titan’s frosty temperatures. But Penteado Crósta says this may have been enough time for microbes to evolve, taking advantage of liquid water, organic molecules, and heat from the impact. “That’s pretty good for bacteria.”

Although the team’s research focused on Menrva, Penteado Crósta says it is possible that smaller impacts were sufficient to break through Titan’s ice shell, perhaps even at Selk—a 90-kilometer-wide crater about 5000 kilometers away. Selk is thought to be much younger than Menrva, perhaps just a few hundred million years old, which would mean any evidence of life there would be fresher. “Selk may have more chance to have some sort of fossilized bacteria preserved in the ice,” Penteado Crósta says.

Selk is the planned landing site for NASA’s Dragonfly mission, a $1 billion autonomous and nuclear-powered drone set to launch in 2027 and arrive on Titan 2036. If the impact did break the ice crust here, the mission could find out.

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Entire article available here.

17 March 2021

How lightning strikes could explain the origin of life—on Earth and elsewhere

A new study suggests that lightning helps make an essential element available to organisms in habitable environments.

The search for life on other planets is a lot like cooking. (Bear with me for a second.) You can have all the ingredients in one place—water, a warm climate and thick atmosphere, the proper nutrients, organic material, and a source of energy—but if you don’t have any processes or conditions that can actually do something with those ingredients, you’ve just got a bunch of raw materials going nowhere. 

So sometimes, life needs a spark of inspiration—or maybe several trillion of them. A new study published in Nature Communications suggests lightning may have been a key component in making phosphorus available for organisms to use when life on Earth first appeared by about 3.5 billion years ago. Phosphorus is essential for making DNA, RNA, ATP (the energy source of all known life), and other biological components like cell membranes. 

“This study was actually a lucky discovery,” says Benjamin Hess, a Yale University researcher and lead author of the new paper. “It opens up new possibilities for finding life on Earth-like planets.”

This isn’t the first time lightning has been suggested as a vital part of what made life possible on Earth. Lab experiments have demonstrated that organic materials produced by lightning could have included precursor compounds like amino acids (which can join to form proteins).

This new study discusses the role of lightning in a different way, though. A big question scientists have always pondered has to do with the way early life on Earth accessed phosphorus. Although there was plenty of water and carbon dioxide available to work with billions of years ago, phosphorus was wrapped up in insoluble, unreactive rocks. In other words, the phosphorus was basically locked away for good.

How did organisms get access to this essential element? The prevailing theory has been that meteorites delivered phosphorus to Earth in the form of a mineral called schreibersite—which can dissolve in water, making it readily available for life forms to use. The big problem with this idea is that when life began over 3.5 to 4.5 billion years ago, meteorite impacts were declining exponentially. The planet needed a lot of phosphorus-containing schreibersite to sustain life. And meteorite impacts would also have been destructive enough to, well, kill off nascent life prematurely (see: the dinosaurs) or vaporize most of the schreibersite being delivered. 

Hess and his colleagues believe they have found the solution. Schreibersite is also found in glass materials called fulgurites, which are formed when lighting hits Earth. When fulgurite forms, it incorporates phosphorus from terrestrial rocks. And it’s soluble in water. 

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Full article available here.